Global phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and correlates of genital mutilation/cutting

Nature Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 6 Nature Published In Pages: 635-645
By Šaffa, Gabriel, Zrzavý, Jan, Duda, Pavel


Genital mutilation/cutting is associated with social stratification.


This is tested against each of the GM/C variables. Proxy variables for social stratification are the presence of classes, castes, chiefdoms, and states. Castes are included in every model, classes are included in all FGM/C models except for clitoridectomy and none of the MGM/C models, and chiefdoms and states are included in each of the MGM/C models but none of the FGM/C models. The correlated evolution model shows that GM/C is more likely to develop in societies with castes.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Phylogenetic logistic regression, Correlated evolutionPartially Supported (see note)UNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN