Human milk immune factors, maternal nutritional status, and infant sex: The INSPIRE study

American Journal of Human Biology Vol/Iss. 35(11) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Published In Pages: e23943
By Caffé, Beatrice, Blackwell, Aaron, Fehrenkamp, Bethaney D., Williams, Janet E., Pace, Ryan M., Lackey, Kimberly A., Ruiz, Lorena, Rodríguez, Juan M., McGuire, Mark A., Foster, James A., Sellen, Daniel W., Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W., Kamundia, Egidioh W., Mbugua, Samwel, Moore, Sophie E., Prentice, Andrew M., Kvist, Linda J., Otoo, Gloria E., Pareja, Rossina G., Bode, Lars, Gebeyehu, Dubale, Gindola, Debela K., Boothman, Sarah, Flores, Katherine, McGuire, Michelle K., Meehan, Courtney, L.


Concentrations of milk immune factors vary in response to maternal condition and sex of infant.


Only IgG concentrations were found to be lower in milk produced by women with low diet-diversity and with male infants. (β = 0.099, P = .037)


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Linear mixed-effects modelsPartially SupportedUNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN