Social contact versus bodily contact: a qualitative difference between father and mother for the son's masculine identity

Behavior Science Research Vol/Iss. 13 Published In Pages: 273-285
By Kitahara, Michio


Male circumcision becomes more likely when mothers and babies share beds and when fathers sleep in separate huts/villages. Societies with both traits, one trait, and neither trait will be most, less, and least likely to have circumcision, respectively (281-2).


Author compares this p-value, which indicates a significant difference in circumcision between societies with both and neither traits, to other p-values to support hypothesis. He makes distinctions between p-values which are both below .05; this is not a conventional method of comparison.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Fisher’s exact testClaimed supportedp<.001UNKNOWNOne-tailed


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
CircumcisionDependentBody Alterations
Parent-child Sleeping ArrangementsIndependentSleeping, Infant Care

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Kitahara, MichioSocieties in which mother and son sleep in the same bed and the father sleeps in another hut/village will be more likely to have male circumcision than societies in which the father sleeps in the same hut (280).
Kitahara, MichioSocieties in which the mother and son sleep in the same bed and the father sleeps separately in the same hut will be more likely to have male circumcision; societies in which the mother and son sleep separately but in the same hut with the father will be less likely to have male circumsion (279).
Kitahara, MichioPolygynous societies that engage in a long postpartum sexual taboo will be positively correlated with males who are more likely to be circumcised at puberty (206)
Munroe, Robert L.Societies with close mother-infant contact and patrilineage will practice male circumcision ceremonies. In societies with close mother-infant contact and without patrilineages, the couvade will be present (627).
Munroe, Robert L."Societies in which mothers are highly salient to their infants as a consequence of being carried in close contact should also perform male circumcision rites or practice the couvade or both as a method of resolving or expressing sex-identity conflict" (626).