Found 3096 Hypotheses across 310 Pages (0.038 seconds)
  1. Levels of pressure or anxiety/conflict children experience in regard to their performance of both individualistic and group-oriented behaviors tend to be positively correlated (p. 684).Zern, David - Relationships among selected child-rearing variables in a cross-cultural sam..., 1984 - 1 Variables

    This article examines child-training through children's display of individualistic orientations (self-reliance, achievement, and general independence) and/or group orientations (responsibility, nurturance, and obedience). Five sub-categories measure whether each orientation is linked to a child's experience of general pressure or performance anxiety/conflict. Together, these orientations their sub-categories total 30 variables that were correlated; differences in gender were also examined. Results indicate that child-rearing pressure to act one way predicts pressure to act in other ways, and this pattern of interaction between variables did not vary by gender.

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  2. [The hypothesis of positive fixation:] "In any society, the greater the custom potential of initial satisfaction in any system of behavior, the greater will be the custom potential of therapeutic practices which involve the performance of responses in that system" (192)Whiting, John W.M. - Child training and personality: a cross-cultural study, 1953 - 2 Variables

    The authors put forward a theoretical model called "personality integration of culture." At the heart of the model is the idea that psychological processes may help explain why certain aspects of culture are related to other aspects. To test this model they focus on theories and therapies regarding illness and they use psychoanalytic ideas on positive and negative fixation to suggest how differences in child-rearing customs may account for different ideas about the causes of illness. The strongest results relate to socialization anxiety in a particular area of socialization (e.g., oral, dependency, and aggression) amd respective causes of illness. Results regarding negative fixation are generally supported, whereas positive fixation is not.

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  3. "Reasoning based on the frustration-aggression hypothesis would lead one to expect a positive relationship between social anxiety scores and aggression index scores" (64)Palmer, Stuart - Aggression in fifty-eight non-literate societies: an exploratory analysis, 1970 - 2 Variables

    Building on previous research concerning murder and suicide, this study investigates 18 forms of aggression and explores how they might be engendered by certain child-training practices. Results show a weak connection between most forms of aggression and child-training practices, but non-literate societies do show a positive correlation between murder and suicide. The author develops a theory positing that experience of social blockage will be related to outwardly-directed aggression, whereas social loss will be related to inwardly-directed aggression.

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  4. "The greater the degree to which supernatural punishment is noncontingent: . . . 1) the lower satisfaction of behavior systems . . . 2) the earlier the age of socialization . . . and 3) the greater the inconsistency in socialization" (201)Spiro, Melford E. - A cross-cultural study of some supernatural beliefs, 1967 - 4 Variables

    This article examines the relationship between child training and supernatural beliefs. The authors develop a schema delineating the role of the supernatural in nurturance and punishment; ten hypotheses associating the role of the supernatural with various child training practices are tested. Several are confirmed.

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  5. Population density is positively correlated with tightness-looseness (p. 1101).Gelfand, Michele J. - Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study, 2011 - 2 Variables

    This article explores differences between "tight" cultures ("have many strong norms and low tolerance of deviant behavior") and "loose" cultures ("have weak social norms and high tolerance of deviant behavior"). The tightness-looseness measure manifests in a myriad of macro and micro phenomena, from governance and religiosity to individual psychological processes. This study investigates these phenomena in modern nations rather than traditional societies. Potential ecological, historical, and socio-political predictors of tightness-looseness are also examined.

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  6. Food deprivation is positively correlated with tightness-looseness (p. 1101).Gelfand, Michele J. - Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study, 2011 - 2 Variables

    This article explores differences between "tight" cultures ("have many strong norms and low tolerance of deviant behavior") and "loose" cultures ("have weak social norms and high tolerance of deviant behavior"). The tightness-looseness measure manifests in a myriad of macro and micro phenomena, from governance and religiosity to individual psychological processes. This study investigates these phenomena in modern nations rather than traditional societies. Potential ecological, historical, and socio-political predictors of tightness-looseness are also examined.

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  7. Plow agriculture will be negatively associated with family size (261).Korotayev, Andrey V. - Explaining current fertility dynamics in tropical Africa from an anthropolog..., 2016 - 2 Variables

    This paper presents tests of the relationships between tropical African agriculture and cultural variables regulating reproduction in order to examine a theory which suggests that the lagging or absence of tropical Africa's demographic transition is the result of pervasive 'pro-natal' cultural practices. Strength of association between these factors and non-plow agriculture, the traditional method of farming in tropical Africa, leads the authors to suggest that women's larger subsistence role in these societies favors extended family households in which child-rearing responsibilities can be shared, and polygynous marriage systems in which co-wives can contribute substantially to the family's labor productivity. These, along with erosion of regulations on postpartum sex and birth spacing which were prevalent prior to modernization, are identified as characterstics which have and will continue to resist fertility decline.

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  8. Plow agriculture will be negatively associated with presence of polygyny (265).Korotayev, Andrey V. - Explaining current fertility dynamics in tropical Africa from an anthropolog..., 2016 - 2 Variables

    This paper presents tests of the relationships between tropical African agriculture and cultural variables regulating reproduction in order to examine a theory which suggests that the lagging or absence of tropical Africa's demographic transition is the result of pervasive 'pro-natal' cultural practices. Strength of association between these factors and non-plow agriculture, the traditional method of farming in tropical Africa, leads the authors to suggest that women's larger subsistence role in these societies favors extended family households in which child-rearing responsibilities can be shared, and polygynous marriage systems in which co-wives can contribute substantially to the family's labor productivity. These, along with erosion of regulations on postpartum sex and birth spacing which were prevalent prior to modernization, are identified as characterstics which have and will continue to resist fertility decline.

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  9. Polygyny will be positively associated with length of postpartum sex taboo (267).Korotayev, Andrey V. - Explaining current fertility dynamics in tropical Africa from an anthropolog..., 2016 - 2 Variables

    This paper presents tests of the relationships between tropical African agriculture and cultural variables regulating reproduction in order to examine a theory which suggests that the lagging or absence of tropical Africa's demographic transition is the result of pervasive 'pro-natal' cultural practices. Strength of association between these factors and non-plow agriculture, the traditional method of farming in tropical Africa, leads the authors to suggest that women's larger subsistence role in these societies favors extended family households in which child-rearing responsibilities can be shared, and polygynous marriage systems in which co-wives can contribute substantially to the family's labor productivity. These, along with erosion of regulations on postpartum sex and birth spacing which were prevalent prior to modernization, are identified as characterstics which have and will continue to resist fertility decline.

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  10. The total number of territorial threats is positively correlated with tightness-looseness (p. 1101).Gelfand, Michele J. - Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study, 2011 - 2 Variables

    This article explores differences between "tight" cultures ("have many strong norms and low tolerance of deviant behavior") and "loose" cultures ("have weak social norms and high tolerance of deviant behavior"). The tightness-looseness measure manifests in a myriad of macro and micro phenomena, from governance and religiosity to individual psychological processes. This study investigates these phenomena in modern nations rather than traditional societies. Potential ecological, historical, and socio-political predictors of tightness-looseness are also examined.

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