Found 1370 Hypotheses across 137 Pages (0.05 seconds)
  1. Moralizing high gods are most likely to be found in ecologically inhospitable and unpredictable environments, in politically complex societies, in societies near (or linguistically related to) other societies with high gods, and in societies with animal husbandry and/or agriculture.Botero, Carlos A. - The ecology of religious beliefs, 2014 - 8 Variables

    Belief in moralizing high gods (MHGs) has been theorized as a response to unfavorable environments, as a way to normalize behavior. In this study, researchers test the theory by creating a model for predicting the distribution of MHGs. They run many alternative models, testing the effects of resource abundance, climate stability, and pertinent social factors on the occurrence of belief in MHGs. Based on the ten most supported models, they create an average model that predicts MHGs within cultures with “excellent” accuracy.

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  2. Environmental richness will be positively associated with the adoption of agriculture (882-3).Pryor, Frederic L. - The adoption of agriculture: some theoretical and empirical evidence, 1986 - 2 Variables

    This article investigates the adoption of agriculture. The author tests three possible predictors: environmental richness, population density, and division of labor by gender. Minimal support is found for these variables, and the author proposes two alternative explanations, based on diminishing returns in food production and balancing the food portfolio.

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  3. Behavioral traits will be affected by both cultural history and ecology (5).Mathew, Sarah - Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social lea..., 2015 - 3 Variables

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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  4. Cultural history will have a stronger effect on the probability of a trait being present than ecology (5).Mathew, Sarah - Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social lea..., 2015 - 3 Variables

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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  5. Both cultural phylogeny and ecology will be stronger predictors than spatial distance for a majority of traits in all categories (5).Mathew, Sarah - Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social lea..., 2015 - 4 Variables

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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  6. Cultural history will have a larger effect than ecology in a majority of traits in the categories of technology and material culture, marriage and family organization, economic organization, ceremonies and rituals, supernatural beliefs, kinship system, political organization, warfare, settlement patterns, and sodalities (5).Mathew, Sarah - Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social lea..., 2015 - 3 Variables

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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  7. "The largest proportion of high-sorcery societies is found among those in which plural wives live in the same house, and the second largest proportion is found where there is the mother-child household, which does not involve many persons under one roof but almost always involves polygyny" (44)LeVine, Robert A. - Witchcraft and co-wife proximity in southwestern kenya, 1962 - 2 Variables

    This article explores the relationship between polygyny and witchcraft accusations in three societies in Kenya. It is argued that the closer co-wives live (have adjacent houses, common yard), the more likely they are to accuse one another of witchcraft. The affects of household structure on population density and intra-household relationships are also discussed.

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  8. Ecoregion richness will be a predictor of language diversity in North America.Cuelho, Mario Tulio Pacheco - Drivers of geographical patterns of North American language diversity, 2019 - 2 Variables

    The authors examine multiple ecological variables as possible predictors of language diversity in North America using path analysis, mechanistic simulation modelling, and geographically weighted regression. They conclude that many of the variables do not predict language diversity, but rather are mediated by population density. The authors also find that the variables' ability to predict is not universal across the continent, but rather more regional.

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  9. In African societies, specific kinds of biodiversity will be negatively correlated to agriculture intensity.Medupe, Dithapelo - Why did foraging, horticulture and pastoralism persist after the Neolithic t..., 2023 - 2 Variables

    Using t-test, generalized linear models (GLMs) and Bayesian regression models in a sample of 1188 pre-industrial societies, this study explores the research question: Why have foraging, horticulture, and pastoralism persisted into the 20th and 21st century? The authors test the marginal hypothesis and the oasis hypothesis of agricultural intensification. The first hypothesis suggests that foragers persisted because foragers predominantly inhabited marginal habitats that were typically unsuitable for agricultural purposes. The second hypothesis suggests that intensive agriculture emerged in regions characterized by limited biodiversity and a dependable water supply not reliant on local rainfall. In addition, the authors test whether specific kinds of biodiversity (elephants, malaria, and tsetse flies) correlate with agricultural intensification in African societies. The results support the marginal and oasis hypotheses, but only marginally support the African hypothesis, since only tsetse fly has a significant negative correlation to agricultural intensification.

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  10. The effect of ecology will be greater than culture history in a majority of the traits related to subsistence (5).Mathew, Sarah - Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social lea..., 2015 - 3 Variables

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

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