Found 2817 Hypotheses across 282 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. There will either be an absence of labiodentals in languages spoken in Australia, Greenland, and southern Africa or if present are associated with words borrowed through contact with European languages.Blasi, D.E. - Human sound systems are shaped by post-Neolithic changes in bite configuration, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Using ethnography, historical linguistics, paleoanthropology, and speech biomechanics, the present study examines the relationship between labiodentals and the post-Neolithic period with the introduction of agriculture and softer diets. The results offer support for the linguist, Charles Hockett's, hypothesis that the shift in bite configuration in the post-Neolithic period, as well as the persistence of overbite and overjet, facilitates and makes the articulation of labiodentals more prevalent. Using cross-cultural comparison, findings also reveal that societies that produce their food are more likely to evolve and keep labiodentals than those that are not food-producing. Contact with other societies is also a mode by which societies gain labiodentals. Lastly, the expansion of agricultural and food processing technology over time has been imperative to labiodental articulations.

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  2. In the Indo-European language family, the expansion of agricultural and food processing technology over time is related to an increase in labiodental articulations.Blasi, D.E. - Human sound systems are shaped by post-Neolithic changes in bite configuration, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Using ethnography, historical linguistics, paleoanthropology, and speech biomechanics, the present study examines the relationship between labiodentals and the post-Neolithic period with the introduction of agriculture and softer diets. The results offer support for the linguist, Charles Hockett's, hypothesis that the shift in bite configuration in the post-Neolithic period, as well as the persistence of overbite and overjet, facilitates and makes the articulation of labiodentals more prevalent. Using cross-cultural comparison, findings also reveal that societies that produce their food are more likely to evolve and keep labiodentals than those that are not food-producing. Contact with other societies is also a mode by which societies gain labiodentals. Lastly, the expansion of agricultural and food processing technology over time has been imperative to labiodental articulations.

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  3. Adult violence mortality is higher among horticulturalists compared to hunter-gatherers (164).Hames, Raymond - Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers, 2019 - 2 Variables

    In this article Hames addresses the long-standing disagreements between evolutionary theories regarding human warfare (more specifically between Rousseauian and Hobbesian frameworks). This study posits that while most current and previous research focuses on the discrepancies between the frequency and intensity with which warfare takes place between hunter-gatherer and large-scale societies, the ability for societies to live in peace with their neighbors despite the possibility for warfare, is the most important evolutionary trait. Coexisting peacefully is what distinguishes human socially and politically from chimpanzees whereas warfare itself is a more primitive trait humans share with previous ancestors. Hames concludes that going forward, use of phylogenetic methods to control for common ancestry, and use of archaeological data would lead to new and more comprehensive findings. Although largely a review of principal warfare literature, Hames does present an original statistical finding on adult violence mortality which is reported below.

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  4. Primarily hunter-gatherers are more likely to use clubs and throwing sticks for violence than hunter-gatherers.Hrnčíř, Václav - The Use of Wooden Clubs and Throwing Sticks among Recent Foragers, 2023 - 2 Variables

    The idea that archaic humans used wooden clubs as weapons is popular but not based on much archaeological evidence, due to the poor preservation of organic materials in the archaeological record. A new study analyzed 57 recent hunting-gathering societies and found that the majority used clubs for violence and/or hunting. The use of throwing sticks was less frequent. The study suggests that the use of clubs by early humans was highly probable, but that prehistoric weapons may have been quite sophisticated and carried strong symbolic meaning. The great variation in the forms and use of clubs and throwing sticks among recent hunter-gatherers suggests that similar variation may have existed in the past.

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  5. Hunter-gatherers are more likely to use clubs for hunting and fishing than primarily hunter-gatherer groups.Hrnčíř, Václav - The Use of Wooden Clubs and Throwing Sticks among Recent Foragers, 2023 - 2 Variables

    The idea that archaic humans used wooden clubs as weapons is popular but not based on much archaeological evidence, due to the poor preservation of organic materials in the archaeological record. A new study analyzed 57 recent hunting-gathering societies and found that the majority used clubs for violence and/or hunting. The use of throwing sticks was less frequent. The study suggests that the use of clubs by early humans was highly probable, but that prehistoric weapons may have been quite sophisticated and carried strong symbolic meaning. The great variation in the forms and use of clubs and throwing sticks among recent hunter-gatherers suggests that similar variation may have existed in the past.

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  6. Men in agricultural societies will be more likely to invest in their offspring (via inheritance) than men in hunter-gatherer societies (239).Gaulin, Steven J.C. - Sexual dimorphism in the human post-reproductive life-span: possible causes, 1980 - 2 Variables

    This study tests possible explanations for sexual dimorphism in human post-reproductive life-spans. The author focuses on explanations involving male paternal investment and finds that men in agricultural societies are more likely to invest in their offspring than men in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  7. Agricultural societies will have higher paternal certainty than hunter-gatherer societies (230).Gaulin, Steven J.C. - Sexual dimorphism in the human post-reproductive life-span: possible causes, 1980 - 2 Variables

    This study tests possible explanations for sexual dimorphism in human post-reproductive life-spans. The author focuses on explanations involving male paternal investment and finds that men in agricultural societies are more likely to invest in their offspring than men in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  8. Concerted transmission is more common in pastoralists than hunter-gatherers.Bira, Temechegn G. - Cultural Learning Among Pastoralist Children, 2023 - 2 Variables

    This paper examines patterns of cultural learning in pastoralist societies and compares them to those found in hunter-gatherer societies. The study analyzed 198 texts from 13 pastoralist cultures in the eHRAF World Cultures database and found that most cultural skills and knowledge were acquired in early childhood, with parents and non-parental adults as the primary sources of transmission. Teaching was the most common form of learning across all age groups, with minimal variation in transmission between different age groups. While similarities were found between the cultural learning patterns of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, pastoralists were less likely to mention learning from peers and more likely to mention learning via local enhancement and stimulus enhancement. The importance of teaching did not increase with age in pastoralist societies, unlike in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  9. Prestige-bias is more common in pastoralists than in hunter-gatherers.Bira, Temechegn G. - Cultural Learning Among Pastoralist Children, 2023 - 2 Variables

    This paper examines patterns of cultural learning in pastoralist societies and compares them to those found in hunter-gatherer societies. The study analyzed 198 texts from 13 pastoralist cultures in the eHRAF World Cultures database and found that most cultural skills and knowledge were acquired in early childhood, with parents and non-parental adults as the primary sources of transmission. Teaching was the most common form of learning across all age groups, with minimal variation in transmission between different age groups. While similarities were found between the cultural learning patterns of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, pastoralists were less likely to mention learning from peers and more likely to mention learning via local enhancement and stimulus enhancement. The importance of teaching did not increase with age in pastoralist societies, unlike in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  10. Nasal consonants, non-nasal labial stops, and low vowels will the sounds most frequently used by young children to denote the mother and father (1).Murdock, George Peter - Cross-language parallels in parental kin terms, 1959 - 2 Variables

    This article examines the universal tendency for languages, regardless of their historical relationships, to develop similar words for mother and father on the basis of nursery forms. Findings suggest that Ma, Na, Pa, and Ta are significantly more common sound classes denoting the mother or father.

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