Found 1586 Hypotheses across 159 Pages (0.008 seconds)
  1. Tribal societies in Sudan that experience more local spatial rainfall variability will be more likely to establish more common property rights.Nugent, Jeffrey B. - The local variability of rainfall and tribal institutions: the case of Sudan, 1999 - 7 Variables

    This paper poses and tests relationships between local spatial variability of rainfall and property rights, as well as the degree of hierarchy, across 41 different tribal societies in Sudan. The authors find that there is a significant negative relationship between rainfall variability and degree of hierarchy. They also find that in the presence of local rainfall variability in Sudan, members of a tribe are more likely to establish common property institutions that allow access to all members.

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  2. Agricultural economy type (Herding-Plus, Egalitarian, Individualistic, or Semi-Marketized) will be associated with the presence of certain demographic and environmental characteristics. (111)Frederic L. Pryor - Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial Societies, 2005 - 16 Variables

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  3. River density will be a predictor of language diversity in North America.Cuelho, Mario Tulio Pacheco - Drivers of geographical patterns of North American language diversity, 2019 - 2 Variables

    The authors examine multiple ecological variables as possible predictors of language diversity in North America using path analysis, mechanistic simulation modelling, and geographically weighted regression. They conclude that many of the variables do not predict language diversity, but rather are mediated by population density. The authors also find that the variables' ability to predict is not universal across the continent, but rather more regional.

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  4. Percentage of subsistence derived from agriculture will be positively associated with indicators of environmental favorability (65).Frederic L. Pryor - Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial Societies, 2005 - 6 Variables

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  5. Agriculture arose out of necessity as environmental conditions deterioratedKavanagh, Patrick H. - Hindcasting global population densities reveals forces enabling the origin o..., 2018 - 2 Variables

    The researchers, using principal component analysis, generalized additive models across 12 agriculture origin locations, and a model predicting hunter-gatherer population density, evaluate hindcasted population density trends to suggest predictors of the development of agriculture. Using domestication as an indicator of agriculture, they test 3 competing hypotheses regarding agriculture development. Their results are consistent with the "surplus" hypothesis, indicating that agriculture arose as population densities increased along with environmental capabilities.

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  6. Rate of exogamy will be negatively associated with community size. (1807)Dow, Gregory K. - The economics of exogamous marriage in small‐scale societies, 2016 - 10 Variables

    The authors develop and empirically test a model in which exogamy is negatively predicted by community size, due to decreasing heterogeneity from endogenous marriages in small settlements, and positively predicted by disparity in productivity between communities which is 'smoothed out' by transfer of community members through exogamous marriages. Support for both predictions is found, which is used to argue that cultural traits like marriage customs are heavily influenced by population-environment relationships.

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  7. Diversity and complexity of toolkits used by farming and herding groups will be positively associated with risk of resource failure (2).Collard, Mark - Risk of resource failure and toolkit variation in small-scale farmers and he..., 2012 - 11 Variables

    Prior research by Oswalt (1973, 1976) and Torrence (1983, 2001) has suggested that risk of resource failure is a significant predictor of toolkit complexity and diversity among hunter-gatherers. In this paper, the same relationship is tested among small-scale herding and farming groups. However, no significant correlation is discovered between any measure of resource risk and any measure of toolkit complexity. The researchers suggest that this absence may be the result of greater reliance on non-technological diversification methods among farmers (i.e. spatial diversification, mixed farming, intercropping), or of other unaccounted-for sources of risk (i.e. intergroup raiding and warfare).

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  8. Predictability of climate is positively correlated with type of tenure system.Moritz, Mark - Comparative Study of Territoriality across Forager Societies, 2020 - 4 Variables

    Researchers investigated the variation of land tenure systems across forager societies using the economic defensibility model. The study attempted to explain the variation in tenure systems across 30 hunter-gatherer societies. Using data on defense and sharing of resources among groups, and indicators of resource density, resource predictability, and competition for resources, the researchers were unable to explain the variation. This study highlights the vast range of diversity and complexity of foragers subsistence strategies, and proposes that it may be more telling to conceptualize tenure systems among hunter-gatherer societies as assemblages of multiple property regimes. While there was no overall evidence that environmental variables of resource density and predictability explain variation in tenure systems, researchers did find that increasing population density, and greater competition for resources leads to greater territoriality.

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  9. Low rainfall seasonality is associated with greater female inheritance of property (6)Low, Bobbi S. - Sex, power, and resources: ecological and social correlates of sex differences, 1990 - 2 Variables

    This article focuses on ecological correlates of sexual division in the control of resources. The author tests several ecological theories put forth by others. Sex coalitions are examined in humans, and sexual dimorphism in resource acquisition and control is discussed.

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  10. Linguistic diversity will be predicted by some of 14 environmental variables across continental regions universally (2).Axelsen, Jacob Bock - River density and landscape roughness are universal determinants of linguist..., 2014 - 15 Variables

    The authors investigate the relationship between linguistic diversity and various environmental and spatial variables associated with biodiversity. Most of these variables predict linguistic diversity variably across different continents, and more so within Africa and extended Asia (Asia, the Pacific, and Australia) than within Europe and the Americas. This divide is theorized to be a result of differences in demography and impact of colonialism between the two global regions. However, two environmental factors, landscape roughness and density of river systems, are found to be significant predictors across all global regions. The authors suggest that, as in processes of speciation, rough terrain and watercourses both create physical barriers between which languages can develop in isolation while, in the case of river junctions, also providing transportation routes whereby hybrid languages can occasionally manifest.

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