Found 2266 Hypotheses across 227 Pages (0.006 seconds)
  1. The rate of replacement for Indo-European kinship terms is correlated with their usage frequency. Rácz, Péter - Usage frequency and lexical class determine the evolution of kinship terms i..., 2019 - 2 Variables

    Previous research has found that words are replaced faster in language vocabularies the less the word is used, whereas words that are used more frequently endure longer. Drawing from this theory, the authors of this article propose two questions: 1) Is the rate of replacement for Indo-European kinship terms correlated with their usage frequency? 2) How does this relationship differ between kinship terms and core vocabulary? Using phylogenetic comparative methods to analyze 10 kinship categories from 47 Indo-European languages, the authors find that more frequently used kinship terms tend to be replaced at a much slower rate than less frequently used words. Furthermore, this relationship between word replacement rate and usage frequency is stronger for kinship terms than it is for core vocabulary terms.

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  2. "Weekdays that are chronologically closer to weekend days will aquire loan words as labels before weekdays in the middle of the seven-day cycle…languages borrow terms for Saturday and Sunday before they borrow a term for any weekday" (536).Brown, Cecil H. - Naming the days of the week: a cross-language study of lexical acculturation, 1989 - 2 Variables

    This paper provides a linguistic study of the effect of lexical acculturation on the names given to days of the week. Findings show that loan words are used most frequently adopted for weekend days, followed by the days of the week that are closest to the weekends, and least frequently adopted for the days in the middle of the seven-day cycle.

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  3. Total rate of change (word gain plus word loss) is related to population size.Bromham, Lindell - Rate of language evolution is affected by population size, 2012 - 2 Variables

    Population size is generally assumed to play a pivotal role in the evolution of languages and cultures, but the expected patterns and potential mechanisms of change are unsettled. Theoretical models are limited by this uncertainty because they require making prior assumptions about language evolution. Using a sample of 20 Polynesian languages, authors test the effect of population size on the gain, loss, and total change of basic vocabulary words.

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  4. Languages with larger speaker populations had higher rates of gain of new words than did their smaller sister languages (2100).Bromham, Lindell - Rate of language evolution is affected by population size, 2012 - 2 Variables

    Population size is generally assumed to play a pivotal role in the evolution of languages and cultures, but the expected patterns and potential mechanisms of change are unsettled. Theoretical models are limited by this uncertainty because they require making prior assumptions about language evolution. Using a sample of 20 Polynesian languages, authors test the effect of population size on the gain, loss, and total change of basic vocabulary words.

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  5. Languages with a smaller number of speakers had higher rates of loss of lexemes from basic vocabulary than did their larger sister languages (2100).Bromham, Lindell - Rate of language evolution is affected by population size, 2012 - 2 Variables

    Population size is generally assumed to play a pivotal role in the evolution of languages and cultures, but the expected patterns and potential mechanisms of change are unsettled. Theoretical models are limited by this uncertainty because they require making prior assumptions about language evolution. Using a sample of 20 Polynesian languages, authors test the effect of population size on the gain, loss, and total change of basic vocabulary words.

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  6. The number of language speakers will predict the rate of word change in a language.Greenhill, Simon J. - Population Size and the Rate of Language Evolution: A Test Across Indo-Europ..., 2018 - 2 Variables

    How is the evolution of language shaped by speaker population size? Through comparative data analyses of 153 language pairs from the Austronesian, Indo-European, and Niger-Congo language families, the authors find that the influence of population size on language evolution is not the same in the three language families. Only in Indo-European languages did a smaller population size of language-speakers significantly predict more word loss.

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  7. There will be a higher rate of transition from uxorilocality to virilocality than the inverse transition.Fortunato, Laura - Your place or mine? A phylogenetic comparative analysis of marital residence..., 2010 - 2 Variables

    Aiming to better understand human demographic and dispersal history, the study uses Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods to trace post-marital residence and cultural changes among 27 Indo-European and 135 Austronesian languages. They suggest that changes from uxorilocality to other types of residences (neolocality and virolocality) are more common than the inverse transitions. The results are generally supported with one exception: Austronesian societies have a higher rate of transition from neolocality to uxorilocality (1.5) than the other way around (0.9). Other relevant findings are that proto-Indo-European societies tend to follow virilocality, while proto-Malayo-Polynesian uxorilocality. There is a commonality for both language families to present instability of uxorilocality and unusual loss of uxorilocality.

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  8. There will be a higher rate of transition from uxorilocality to neolocality than the inverse transition.Fortunato, Laura - Your place or mine? A phylogenetic comparative analysis of marital residence..., 2010 - 2 Variables

    Aiming to better understand human demographic and dispersal history, the study uses Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods to trace post-marital residence and cultural changes among 27 Indo-European and 135 Austronesian languages. They suggest that changes from uxorilocality to other types of residences (neolocality and virolocality) are more common than the inverse transitions. The results are generally supported with one exception: Austronesian societies have a higher rate of transition from neolocality to uxorilocality (1.5) than the other way around (0.9). Other relevant findings are that proto-Indo-European societies tend to follow virilocality, while proto-Malayo-Polynesian uxorilocality. There is a commonality for both language families to present instability of uxorilocality and unusual loss of uxorilocality.

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  9. Emotion semantics vary widely and significantly across language families (1519).Jackson, Joshua Conrad - Emotion semantics show both cultural variation and universal structure, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers looked at the meaning of various emotion concepts, 'emotion semantics' in an attempt to determine the patterns and processes behind meaning cross-culturally. They used maps of colexification patterns (where semantically related concepts are named with the same word), adjusted Rand indices (ARIs) which indicated the similarities of two community's network structures, and various psychophysiological dimensions to test relationships and patterns of variability /structure in emotion semantics. These methods shed light on the underlying mechanisms behind emotions, both their words and their meanings in languages across the world. Their findings show substantial difference in language families and relationships between geographic proximity of language families and subsequent variation in emotion colexification tied to an evolutionary relationship, while also finding cultural universals in emotion colexification networks with languages primarily differentiating emotions on the basis of valence and activation.

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  10. Geographic proximity is positively correlated with similarity in emotion semantics across language families (1519).Jackson, Joshua Conrad - Emotion semantics show both cultural variation and universal structure, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers looked at the meaning of various emotion concepts, 'emotion semantics' in an attempt to determine the patterns and processes behind meaning cross-culturally. They used maps of colexification patterns (where semantically related concepts are named with the same word), adjusted Rand indices (ARIs) which indicated the similarities of two community's network structures, and various psychophysiological dimensions to test relationships and patterns of variability /structure in emotion semantics. These methods shed light on the underlying mechanisms behind emotions, both their words and their meanings in languages across the world. Their findings show substantial difference in language families and relationships between geographic proximity of language families and subsequent variation in emotion colexification tied to an evolutionary relationship, while also finding cultural universals in emotion colexification networks with languages primarily differentiating emotions on the basis of valence and activation.

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