Found 6 Hypotheses across 1 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Male androphilia is a context-dependent cross-cultural universal (64).Hames, Raymond - Is male androphilia a context-dependent cross-cultural universal?, 2017 - 1 Variables

    The researchers recode Broudeand Greene's (1976) SCCS data in order to distinguish between 'rare and absent' and different types of culturally-mediated same sex behavior, and to expand available data by including documents outside the SCCS. Their procedure suggests that androphilia is present in 57.5 - 83.6% and same-sex behavior present in 91.1% of all societies. They argue that these new data qualify androphilia as a context-dependent human universal, defined by Chapais (2014) as "patterns of behaviors that invariably or consistently arise in specific social circumstances in some cultures or population segments." (Hames et al. 69)

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  2. Adult violence mortality is higher among horticulturalists compared to hunter-gatherers (164).Hames, Raymond - Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers, 2019 - 2 Variables

    In this article Hames addresses the long-standing disagreements between evolutionary theories regarding human warfare (more specifically between Rousseauian and Hobbesian frameworks). This study posits that while most current and previous research focuses on the discrepancies between the frequency and intensity with which warfare takes place between hunter-gatherer and large-scale societies, the ability for societies to live in peace with their neighbors despite the possibility for warfare, is the most important evolutionary trait. Coexisting peacefully is what distinguishes human socially and politically from chimpanzees whereas warfare itself is a more primitive trait humans share with previous ancestors. Hames concludes that going forward, use of phylogenetic methods to control for common ancestry, and use of archaeological data would lead to new and more comprehensive findings. Although largely a review of principal warfare literature, Hames does present an original statistical finding on adult violence mortality which is reported below.

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  3. Cultures with non-classical polyandry tend to be small scale and egalitarian societies that produce food through hunting and gathering and horticulture (p. 161).Starkweather, Katherine E. - A survey of non-classical polyandry, 2012 - 4 Variables

    This article explores determinants of non-classical polyandry, which the authors assert is more common than is usually conveyed. Results indicate that societies with non-classical polyandry tend to be small scale and egalitarian, practice hunting and gathering or horticulture, and have a male-skewed sex ratio. Overall polyandry is thought to add to the reproductive fitness of both men and women.

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  4. A male-skewed sex ratio will be associated with non-classical polyandry (p. 152).Starkweather, Katherine E. - A survey of non-classical polyandry, 2012 - 2 Variables

    This article explores determinants of non-classical polyandry, which the authors assert is more common than is usually conveyed. Results indicate that societies with non-classical polyandry tend to be small scale and egalitarian, practice hunting and gathering or horticulture, and have a male-skewed sex ratio. Overall polyandry is thought to add to the reproductive fitness of both men and women.

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  5. Human populations will spend less time grooming than expected based on nonhuman primate patterns (2).Jaeggi, Adrian V. - Human grooming in comparative perspective: People in six small‐scale societi..., 2017 - 1 Variables

    Grooming of conspecifics is thought to play an important social role among nonhuman primates, but the function and relative importance of such grooming among humans is unknown. Here the authors compare time spent grooming and conversing among six small-scale societies with grooming data from 69 nonhuman primate species. They test the hypothesis that conversation evolved among humans as an alternative way to obtain the social benefits (such as building and maintaining social alliances) of grooming in large groups.

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  6. Observed conversation time among human populations should fall well below the expected grooming times for humans based on nonhuman primate patterns (2).Jaeggi, Adrian V. - Human grooming in comparative perspective: People in six small‐scale societi..., 2017 - 2 Variables

    Grooming of conspecifics is thought to play an important social role among nonhuman primates, but the function and relative importance of such grooming among humans is unknown. Here the authors compare time spent grooming and conversing among six small-scale societies with grooming data from 69 nonhuman primate species. They test the hypothesis that conversation evolved among humans as an alternative way to obtain the social benefits (such as building and maintaining social alliances) of grooming in large groups.

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