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  1. Users of language systems with differing (relative vs. absolute) linguistic frames of reference will use correspondingly relative or absolute nonlinguistic spatial problem-solving strategies (574).Pederson, Eric - Semantic typology and spatial conceptualization, 1998 - 2 Variables

    The authors design and implement two tasks requiring linguistic and non-linguistic spatial reference across a linguistically-diverse sample in order to examine the relationship between language and cognition cross-culturally. The results, which indicate large conceptual variation in frame of spatial reference across as well as strong correlation between use of absolute descriptors and absolute cognitive representations within language communities, suggest that language structure may actively shape the systems of spatial representation available to different cultural groups.

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