Traditions Covered

In the online eHRAF Archaeology database the mostly prehistoric cultures included are organized by regions (e.g. North America), subregions (e.g. Southwest) and subsistence types (e.g. hunter-gatherers). Every year, five archaeological traditions with approximately 10,000 pages are added to eHRAF Archaeology.

The table below gives an overview of the types of traditions currently included in eHRAF Archaeology and can be sorted by the following functions: culture name, region, subregions, subsistence and sample types.   The table, sortable by columns, gives a good insight into the types of prehistoric cultures and tradition sequences covered in the online eHRAF Archaeology database.

All collected, analyzed and indexed archaeological documents (e.g., books, journal articles, monographs) for a prehistoric culture can be found in the Collection Documents tab in the Browse Traditions section of the eHRAF Archaeology database. The archaeological documents are also searchable in the eHRAF Basic or Advanced Search.

Information about how subsistence types are classified for the cultures in the eHRAF Archaeology database scroll down to the bottom of the page.

RegionSubregioneHRAF Tradition NameOWC CodeSubsistence TypeN DocsN PagesBegin DateTimeEnd DateTimeSRS
AfricaNorthern AfricaLate Pleistocene–Early Holocene MaghrebM050hunter-gatherers13114520000BP7500BPYES
AfricaNorthern AfricaKhartoum NeolithicMS50other subsistence combinations513425700BP3550BPYES
AfricaWestern AfricaWest African Iron AgeFA75other subsistence combinations1719142500BP1200BPYES
AfricaSouthern AfricaWiltonFX50hunter-gatherers6136210000BP2000BPYES
AfricaNorthern AfricaMiddle Paleolithic EgyptMR45hunter-gatherers81278230000BP45000BPYES
AfricaNorthern AfricaLate Paleolithic EgyptMR50hunter-gatherers2087645000BP7000BP
AfricaNorthern AfricaUpper Egypt PredynasticMR55intensive agriculturalists2520137000BP5000BP
AfricaNorthern AfricaLower Egypt PredynasticMR60intensive agriculturalists2114097000BP5000BP
AfricaNorthern AfricaEarly Dynastic EgyptMR70intensive agriculturalists5418635000BP4575BP
AfricaNorthern AfricaProtohistoric EgyptMR80intensive agriculturalists914024575BP3552BP
AsiaEast AsiaDawenkouAF50horticulturalists710536300BP4500BPYES
AsiaSouth AsiaGanges NeolithicAQ50other subsistence combinations107574000BP2500BPYES
AsiaCentral AsiaScythian-SarmatianMA51pastoralists69864000BP1700BPYES
AsiaCentral AsiaEastern Central Asia Neolithic and Bronze AgeAJ50agro-pastoralists61876000BP1500BPYES
AsiaSouth AsiaCentral Indian NeolithicAQ63other subsistence combinations147015000BP3100BPYES
AsiaCentral AsiaEarly NomadRL60pastoralists3615422800BP2300BPYES
AsiaEast AsiaYayoiAB80intensive agriculturalists298712500BP1500BPYES
AsiaSouth AsiaIndus NeolithicAQ40hunter-gatherers to food producers97949000BP6800BPYES
AsiaEast AsiaSoutheast China Early NeolithicAF70primarily hunter-gatherers147259000BP5500BPYES
AsiaNorth AsiaTarya NeolithicRY64hunter-gatherers48554000BP2500BPYES
AsiaSouth AsiaEarly IndusAQ43intensive agriculturalists2416017500BP4600BP
AsiaSouth AsiaVedicAQ47intensive agriculturalists1013673900BP2500BP
EuropeGeneral EuropeBell BeakerE050intensive agriculturalists913424500BP3800BPYES
EuropeGeneral EuropeImpressed WareE051primarily hunter-gatherers3812586800BP6000BPYES
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeSoutheastern Europe Late ChalcolithicE075agro-pastoralists3820215500BP4500BPYES
EuropeScandinaviaScandinavian Iron AgeE087other subsistence combinations2014702500BP1500BPYES
EuropeEastern EuropeNortheastern European Bronze AgeE065other subsistence combinations717674000-3800BP2800-2700BP
EuropeEastern EuropeEastern European MesolithicRA55hunter-gatherers620611000BP6500BPYES
Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoHuatabampoNU75primarily hunter-gatherers36691800BP500BPYES
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaClassic MayaNY53intensive agriculturalists3043202100BP1100BPYES
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanLate CaribbeanS051intensive agriculturalists1218601000BP500BPYES
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoWest Mexico PostclassicNU76intensive agriculturalists1518521100BP480BPYES
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaLowland Mesoamerican ArchaicNY50primarily hunter-gatherers83167000BP3800BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaPreclassic MayaNY52horticulturalists6328943800BP1850BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaPostclassic MayaNY54horticulturalists4314011100BP400BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the CaribbeanEarly Mesoamerican ArchaicNY30hunter-gatherers456649600BP7000BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoOlmecNU95other subsistence combinations4119933400BP2100BPYES
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoCentral Mexico PostclassicNU93intensive agriculturalists5023331300BP479BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoCentral Mexico ClassicNU92intensive agriculturalists118942150BP1350BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the CaribbeanHighland Mesoamerican ArchaicNY40hunter-gatherers145767000BP4000BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the CaribbeanHighland Mesoamerican Early PreclassicNY41horticulturalists124234000BP2600BP
Middle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the CaribbeanHighland Mesoamerican Late PreclassicNY42horticulturalists2731142600BP1600BP
Middle EastMiddle EastIranian Bronze AgeMA50agro-pastoralists721985000BP3500BPYES
Middle EastMiddle EastEarly Dynastic MesopotamiaMH64agro-pastoralists1221484900BP4334BPYES
Middle EastMiddle EastHalafianM086agro-pastoralists2421217500BP7000BPYES
Middle EastMiddle EastUbaidMH55agro-pastoralists3415517500BP6000BP
Middle EastMiddle EastLate Chalcolithic MesopotamiaMH60agro-pastoralists3133266000BP5100BP
Middle EastMiddle EastJemdet NasrMH62agro-pastoralists175865100BP4900BP
Middle EastMiddle EastEpipaleolithicM080hunter-gatherers55179140000BP10500BP
Middle EastMiddle EastAceramic NeolithicM084hunter-gatherers to food producers25151610500BP7500BP
Middle EastMiddle EastCeramic NeolithicM087horticulturalists329608000BP6100BP
Middle EastMiddle EastAkkadianMH66agro-pastoralists4817404334BP4112BPYES
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticNortonNA50hunter-gatherers2516653000BP1000BPYES
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticProto-AthapaskansND50hunter-gatherers3211712000BP150BPYES
North AmericaGeneral North AmericaEastern Arctic Small ToolN050hunter-gatherers277454000BP2700BPYES
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaLate Southern CaliforniaNS50hunter-gatherers2022983000BP150BPYES
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Middle ArchaicNN50hunter-gatherers288198000BP6000BPYES
North AmericaPlains and PlateauCascadeNR50hunter-gatherers611918000BP5000BPYES
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticLate TundraNA45hunter-gatherers2012248000BP6000BPYES
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsInitial Shield WoodlandNC54hunter-gatherers109153000BP600BPYES
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsHopewellNP55horticulturalists6712662100BP1700BPYES
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Middle WoodlandNN64primarily hunter-gatherers3311162100BP1300BP
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Late WoodlandNN67primarily hunter-gatherers1117841300BP500BP
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Early ArchaicNN45hunter-gatherers11121010000BP8000BP
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Late ArchaicNN55primarily hunter-gatherers236696000BP3000BP
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Early WoodlandNN60primarily hunter-gatherers3912693000BP2100BP
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsAdenaNP50primarily hunter-gatherers1113942600BP1900BP
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsMississippianNP60horticulturalists4621051100BP500BP
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticPaleo-ArcticND60hunter-gatherers842511000BP6000BPYES
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinHohokamNT76intensive agriculturalists15745752000BP500BPYES
North AmericaGeneral North AmericaLate Paleo-IndianN037hunter-gatherers64119011000BP6000BPYES
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinEarly Desert ArchaicNT50hunter-gatherers31147810000BP8000BP
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinMiddle–Late Desert ArchaicNT55hunter-gatherers5519678000BP150BP
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinMogollonNT85hunter-gatherers to food producers4126052000BP600BP
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinBasketmakerNT93primarily hunter-gatherers137863000BP1300BP
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinEarly AnasaziNT95horticulturalists9354281300BP700BP
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinLate AnasaziNT97intensive agriculturalists151207700BP450BP
OceaniaPolynesiaHawaiianOV50horticulture to intensive agriculture61291800BP200BPYES
OceaniaMelanesiaNew Guinea NeolithicOJ50horticulturalists948810000BP100BPYES
OceaniaPolynesiaTonganOU80horticulturalists75252000BP200BPYES
South AmericaCentral AndesAndean Regional DevelopmentS050agro-pastoralists1227412200BP1300BPYES
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaManteñoSD50horticulturalists512621500BP500BPYES
South AmericaCentral AndesAymara KingdomsSF50agro-pastoralists111202900BP530BPYES
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaEarly Northwest South American LittoralS060primarily hunter-gatherers1113089000BP5500BPYES
South AmericaCentral AndesHighland Andean ArchaicSE47hunter-gatherers to food producers1410807000BP3500BP
South AmericaCentral AndesHighland Andean FormativeSE48agro-pastoralists819153500BP2200BP
South AmericaCentral AndesHuariSE65agro-pastoralists247971200BP900BP
South AmericaCentral AndesAndean Regional StatesSE70intensive agriculturalists172017900BP530BP
South AmericaCentral AndesTiahuanacoSF45agro-pastoralists2012761600BP900BP
South AmericaCentral AndesChavínSE49agro-pastoralists1317722800BP2200BP
South AmericaCentral AndesInkaSE80intensive agriculturalists244285800BP468BP
South AmericaCentral AndesCoastal Andean ArchaicSE40hunter-gatherers to food producers125697000BP3800BP
South AmericaCentral AndesCoastal Andean Early FormativeSE41horticulture to intensive agriculture2210623800BP3000BP
South AmericaCentral AndesCoastal Andean Late FormativeSE43intensive agriculturalists2011123000BP2200BP
South AmericaCentral AndesNazcaSE51intensive agriculturalists2725722200BP1200BP
South AmericaCentral AndesMocheSE55other subsistence combinations2913721950BP1200BP
South AmericaCentral AndesChimuSE75intensive agriculturalists4120571100BP480BPYES

Latest update: August 8, 2016

 

Additional Formats

The Excel file above includes sequence numbers for each culture name as well as subsistence and sample types. Visit the Cross-Cultural Research section to learn more about random sampling.

Subsistence Classification

Hunter-gatherers — also called foragers; depend almost entirely (75% or more) on hunting, gathering, and fishing for subsistence

Hunter-gatherers to food producers — during the tradition the people began as hunter-gatherers and became dependent on food production (55% or more) by the end of the tradition. Food production includes combinations of hunting, gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Primarily hunter-gatherers — depend mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing (55% percent or more)

Horticulturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on simple agriculture (extensive or horticulture). Horticulture frequently requires a long fallow period. This category includes any type of agriculture that is not primarily (55% or more) intensive.

Agro-pastoralists — not any of the above. Pastoralism and horticulture/intensive agriculture combined contribute at least 75% or more to the economy.

Pastoralists — depend mostly (55% or more) on herding or pastoralism

Horticulture to intensive agriculture — at the beginning of the tradition, people depended mostly (55% or more) on horticulture and by the end of the tradition they depended mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture.

Intensive agriculturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture means a variety of techniques are used so that fields can be permanently cultivated. These techniques can include irrigation, terracing, crop rotation, plows, and/or some sort of agriculture.

Other subsistence combinations — includes other combinations of hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Not assigned — not enough information

 

 

 

 

 

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