Traditions Covered

In the online eHRAF Archaeology database the mostly prehistoric cultures included are organized by regions (e.g. North America), subregions (e.g. Southwest) and subsistence types (e.g. hunter-gatherers). Every year, five archaeological traditions with approximately 10,000 pages are added to eHRAF Archaeology.

The table below gives an overview of the types of traditions currently included in eHRAF Archaeology and can be sorted by the following functions: culture name, region, subregions, subsistence and sample types.

Download a PDF list of all traditions in eHRAF Archaeology here.

All collected, analyzed and indexed archaeological documents (e.g., books, journal articles, monographs) for a prehistoric culture can be found in the Collection Documents tab in the Browse Traditions section of the eHRAF Archaeology database. The archaeological documents are also searchable in the eHRAF Basic or Advanced Search.

Information about how subsistence types are classified for the cultures in the eHRAF Archaeology database scroll down to the bottom of the page.

OWC CODEEHRAF TRADITION NAMEREGIONSUBREGIONSUBSISTENCE TYPESRSBEGIN DATE B.P.END DATE B.P.N DOCS
AQ50Ganges NeolithicAsiaSouth Asiaother subsistence combinationsYes4000250010
E050Bell BeakerEuropeGeneral Europeintensive agriculturalistsYes450038009
MA50Iranian Bronze AgeMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYes500035007
NA50NortonNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYes3000100025
ND50Proto-AthapaskansNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYes200015032
OV50HawaiianOceaniaPolynesiahorticulture to intensive agricultureYes8002006
S050Andean Regional DevelopmentSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralistsYes2200130012
SD50ManteñoSouth AmericaNorthwestern South AmericahorticulturalistsYes15005005
SF50Aymara KingdomsSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralistsYes90053011
AF50DawenkouAsiaEast AsiahorticulturalistsYes630045007
E051Impressed WareEuropeGeneral Europeprimarily hunter-gatherersYes6800600038
S051Late CaribbeanMiddle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanintensive agriculturalistsYes100050012
OJ50New Guinea NeolithicOceaniaMelanesiahorticulturalistsYes100001009
NY53Classic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areaintensive agriculturalistsYes2100110030
NU75HuatabampoMiddle America and the CaribbeanNorthern Mexicoprimarily hunter-gatherersYes18005003
NS50Late Southern CaliforniaNorth AmericaNorthwest Coast and Californiahunter-gatherersYes300015020
N050Eastern Arctic Small ToolNorth AmericaGeneral North Americahunter-gatherersYes4000270027
MS50Khartoum NeolithicAfricaNorthern Africaother subsistence combinationsYes570035505
M050Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene MaghrebAfricaNorthern Africahunter-gatherersYes20000750013
MA51Scythian-SarmatianAsiaCentral AsiapastoralistsYes400017006
NY52Preclassic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areahorticulturalists3800185063
S060Early Northwest South American LittoralSouth AmericaNorthwestern South Americaprimarily hunter-gatherersYes9000550011
NY50Lowland Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areaprimarily hunter-gatherers700038008
NR50CascadeNorth AmericaPlains and Plateauhunter-gatherersYes800050006
NN50Eastern Middle ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshunter-gatherersYes8000600028
AJ50Eastern Central Asia Neolithic and Bronze AgeAsiaCentral Asiaagro-pastoralistsYes600015006
NU76West Mexico PostclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicointensive agriculturalistsYes110048015
NY54Postclassic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areahorticulturalists110040043
AQ63Central Indian NeolithicAsiaSouth Asiaother subsistence combinationsYes5000310014
E075Southeastern Europe Late ChalcolithicEuropeSoutheastern Europeagro-pastoralistsYes5500450038
E087Scandinavian Iron AgeEuropeScandinaviaother subsistence combinationsYes2500150020
FA75West African Iron AgeAfricaWestern Africaother subsistence combinationsYes2500120017
NA45Late TundraNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYes8000600020
NC54Initial Shield WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshunter-gatherersYes300060010
RL60Early NomadAsiaCentral AsiapastoralistsYes2800230036
SE47Highland Andean ArchaicSouth AmericaCentral Andeshunter-gatherers to food producers7000350014
SF45TiahuanacoSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists160090020
SE70Andean Regional StatesSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists90053017
SE48Highland Andean FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists350022008
MH64Early Dynastic MesopotamiaMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYes4900433412
SE65HuariSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists120090024
AB80YayoiAsiaEast Asiaintensive agriculturalistsYes2500150029
AQ40Indus NeolithicAsiaSouth Asiahunter-gatherers to food producersYes900068009
FX50WiltonAfricaSouthern Africahunter-gatherersYes1000020006
MR45Middle Paleolithic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africahunter-gatherersYes230000450008
NP55HopewellNorth AmericaEastern WoodlandshorticulturalistsYes2100170067
SE49ChavínSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists2800220013
SE80InkaSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists80046824
MR70Early Dynastic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists5000457554
AF70Southeast China Early NeolithicAsiaEast Asiaprimarily hunter-gatherersYes9000550014
MR50Late Paleolithic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africahunter-gatherers45000700020
MR55Upper Egypt PredynasticAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists7000500025
NN64Eastern Middle WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers2100130033
NN67Eastern Late WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers130050011
MR60Lower Egypt PredynasticAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists7000500021
MR80Protohistoric EgyptAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists457535529
NN45Eastern Early ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshunter-gatherers10000800011
NN55Eastern Late ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers6000300023
NN60Eastern Early WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers3000210039
NP50AdenaNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers2600190011
NP60MississippianNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshorticulturalists110050046
NY30Early Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhunter-gatherers9600700045
RY64Tarya NeolithicAsiaNorth Asiahunter-gatherersYes400025004
M086HalafianMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYes7500700024
NU95OlmecMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicoother subsistence combinationsYes3400210041
MH62Jemdet NasrMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralists5100490017
MH55UbaidMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralists7500600034
MH60Late Chalcolithic MesopotamiaMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralists6000510031
M080EpipaleolithicMiddle EastMiddle Easthunter-gatherers400001050055
M084Aceramic NeolithicMiddle EastMiddle Easthunter-gatherers to food producers10500750025
M087Ceramic NeolithicMiddle EastMiddle Easthorticulturalists8000610032
MH66AkkadianMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYes4334411248
ND60Paleo-ArcticNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYes1100060008
NU93Central Mexico PostclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicointensive agriculturalists130047950
OU80TonganOceaniaPolynesiahorticulturalistsYes20002007
NU92Central Mexico ClassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicointensive agriculturalists2150135011
NY42Highland Mesoamerican Late PreclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhorticulturalists2600160027
NT76HohokamNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinintensive agriculturalistsYes2000500157
NY40Highland Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhunter-gatherers7000400014
NY41Highland Mesoamerican Early PreclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhorticulturalists4000260012
N037Late Paleo-IndianNorth AmericaGeneral North Americahunter-gatherersYes11000600064
NT50Early Desert ArchaicNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhunter-gatherers10000800031
NT55Middle–Late Desert ArchaicNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhunter-gatherers800015055
NT85MogollonNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhunter-gatherers to food producers200060041
NT93BasketmakerNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinprimarily hunter-gatherers3000130013
E065Northeastern European Bronze AgeEuropeEastern Europeother subsistence combinations390027507
NT95Early AnasaziNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhorticulturalists130070093
NT97Late AnasaziNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinintensive agriculturalists70045015
SE41Coastal Andean Early FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andeshorticulture to intensive agriculture3800300022
SE75ChimuSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalistsYes110048041
SE55MocheSouth AmericaCentral Andesother subsistence combinations1950120029
SE43Coastal Andean Late FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists3000220020
SE40Coastal Andean ArchaicSouth AmericaCentral Andeshunter-gatherers to food producers7000380012
SE51NazcaSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists2200120027
AQ43Early IndusAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists7500460024
AQ47VedicAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists390025009
RA55Eastern European MesolithicEuropeEastern Europehunter-gatherersYes1100065006
AQ45Mature IndusAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists4600390030
AQ47VedicAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists1
W130Early Paleo-IndianNew WorldNew Worldhunter-gatherers140001020085
AQ30South Asian Upper PaleolithicAsiaSoutheast Asiahunter-gatherers40000700013
AQ73South Indian ChalcolithicAsiaSouth Asiaother subsistence combinations4500270021

 

 

Subsistence Classification

Hunter-gatherers — also called foragers; depend almost entirely (75% or more) on hunting, gathering, and fishing for subsistence

Hunter-gatherers to food producers — during the tradition the people began as hunter-gatherers and became dependent on food production (55% or more) by the end of the tradition. Food production includes combinations of hunting, gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Primarily hunter-gatherers — depend mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing (55% percent or more)

Horticulturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on simple agriculture (extensive or horticulture). Horticulture frequently requires a long fallow period. This category includes any type of agriculture that is not primarily (55% or more) intensive.

Agro-pastoralists — not any of the above. Pastoralism and horticulture/intensive agriculture combined contribute at least 75% or more to the economy.

Pastoralists — depend mostly (55% or more) on herding or pastoralism

Horticulture to intensive agriculture — at the beginning of the tradition, people depended mostly (55% or more) on horticulture and by the end of the tradition they depended mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture.

Intensive agriculturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture means a variety of techniques are used so that fields can be permanently cultivated. These techniques can include irrigation, terracing, crop rotation, plows, and/or some sort of agriculture.

Other subsistence combinations — includes other combinations of hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Not assigned — not enough information

 

 

Latest updated: October 10, 2018