Traditions Covered

In the online eHRAF Archaeology database the mostly prehistoric cultures included are organized by regions (e.g. North America), subregions (e.g. Southwest) and subsistence types (e.g. hunter-gatherers). Every year, five archaeological traditions with approximately 10,000 pages are added to eHRAF Archaeology.

The table below gives an overview of the types of traditions currently included in eHRAF Archaeology and can be sorted by the following functions: culture name, region, subregions, subsistence and sample types.   The table, sortable by columns, gives a good insight into the types of prehistoric cultures and tradition sequences covered in the online eHRAF Archaeology database.

All collected, analyzed and indexed archaeological documents (e.g., books, journal articles, monographs) for a prehistoric culture can be found in the Collection Documents tab in the Browse Traditions section of the eHRAF Archaeology database. The archaeological documents are also searchable in the eHRAF Basic or Advanced Search.

Information about how subsistence types are classified for the cultures in the eHRAF Archaeology database scroll down to the bottom of the page.

OWC CodeeHRAF Tradition NameRegionSubregionSubsistence TypeSRS Begin Date B.P. End Date B.P. N Docs N Pages
M050Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene MaghrebAfricaNorthern Africahunter-gatherersYES200007500131154
MR45Middle Paleolithic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africahunter-gatherersYES2300004500081283
MR50Late Paleolithic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africahunter-gatherers45000700020881
MR55Upper Egypt PredynasticAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists70005000252026
MR60Lower Egypt PredynasticAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists70005000211418
MR70Early Dynastic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists50004575541881
MR80Protohistoric EgyptAfricaNorthern Africaintensive agriculturalists4575355291423
MS50Khartoum NeolithicAfricaNorthern Africaother subsistence combinationsYES5700355051350
FX50WiltonAfricaSouthern Africahunter-gatherersYES10000200061366
FA75West African Iron AgeAfricaWestern Africaother subsistence combinationsYES25001200171926
AJ50Eastern Central Asia Neolithic and Bronze AgeAsiaCentral Asiaagro-pastoralistsYES600015006190
MA51Scythian-SarmatianAsiaCentral AsiapastoralistsYES400017006992
RL60Early NomadAsiaCentral AsiapastoralistsYES28002300361547
AF50DawenkouAsiaEast AsiahorticulturalistsYES6300450071059
AB80YayoiAsiaEast Asiaintensive agriculturalistsYES2500150029875
AF70Southeast China Early NeolithicAsiaEast Asiaprimarily hunter-gatherersYES9000550014728
RY64Tarya NeolithicAsiaNorth Asiahunter-gatherers400025004859
AQ40Indus NeolithicAsiaSouth Asiahunter-gatherers to food producersYES900068009803
AQ43Early IndusAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists75004600241612
AQ45Mature IndusAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists46003900292957
AQ47VedicAsiaSouth Asiaintensive agriculturalists3900250091367
AQ50Ganges NeolithicAsiaSouth Asiaother subsistence combinationsYES4000250010767
AQ63Central Indian NeolithicAsiaSouth Asiaother subsistence combinationsYES5000310014712
RA55Eastern European MesolithicEuropeEastern Europehunter-gatherersYES1100065006210
E065Northeastern European Bronze AgeEuropeEastern Europeother subsistence combinations4000-38002800-270071769
E050Bell BeakerEuropeGeneral Europeintensive agriculturalistsYES4500380091349
E051Impressed WareEuropeGeneral Europeprimarily hunter-gatherersYES68006000381263
E087Scandinavian Iron AgeEuropeScandinaviaother subsistence combinationsYES25001500201474
E075Southeastern Europe Late ChalcolithicEuropeSoutheastern Europeagro-pastoralistsYES55004500382029
S051Late CaribbeanMiddle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanintensive agriculturalistsYES1000500121870
NU76West Mexico PostclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicointensive agriculturalistsYES1100480151864
NU92Central Mexico ClassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicointensive agriculturalists2150135011910
NU93Central Mexico PostclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicointensive agriculturalists1300479502340
NU95OlmecMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexicoother subsistence combinationsYES34002100412004
NY41Highland Mesoamerican Early PreclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhorticulturalists4000260012431
NY42Highland Mesoamerican Late PreclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhorticulturalists26001600273121
NY30Early Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhunter-gatherers9600700045670
NY40Highland Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbeanhunter-gatherers7000400014579
NY52Preclassic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areahorticulturalists38001850632886
NY54Postclassic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areahorticulturalists1100400431407
NY53Classic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areaintensive agriculturalistsYES21001100304141
NY50Lowland Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Areaprimarily hunter-gatherers700038008323
NU75HuatabampoMiddle America and the CaribbeanNorthern Mexicoprimarily hunter-gatherersYES18005003675
M086HalafianMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYES75007000242128
MA50Iranian Bronze AgeMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYES5000350072072
MH55UbaidMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralists75006000341561
MH60Late Chalcolithic MesopotamiaMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralists60005100313334
MH62Jemdet NasrMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralists5100490017590
MH64Early Dynastic MesopotamiaMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYES49004334121766
MH66AkkadianMiddle EastMiddle Eastagro-pastoralistsYES43344112481744
M087Ceramic NeolithicMiddle EastMiddle Easthorticulturalists8000610032966
M080EpipaleolithicMiddle EastMiddle Easthunter-gatherers4000010500551801
M084Aceramic NeolithicMiddle EastMiddle Easthunter-gatherers to food producers105007500251525
NA45Late TundraNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYES80006000201233
NA50NortonNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYES30001000251858
ND50Proto-AthapaskansNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYES2000150321280
ND60Paleo-ArcticNorth AmericaArctic and Subarctichunter-gatherersYES1100060008427
NP55HopewellNorth AmericaEastern WoodlandshorticulturalistsYES21001700671274
NP60MississippianNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshorticulturalists1100500462113
NC54Initial Shield WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshunter-gatherersYES300060010928
NN45Eastern Early ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshunter-gatherers100008000111219
NN50Eastern Middle ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandshunter-gatherersYES8000600028827
NN55Eastern Late ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers6000300023680
NN60Eastern Early WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers30002100391276
NN64Eastern Middle WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers21001300331124
NN67Eastern Late WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers1300500111794
NP50AdenaNorth AmericaEastern Woodlandsprimarily hunter-gatherers26001900111404
N037Late Paleo-IndianNorth AmericaGeneral North Americahunter-gatherers110006000641193
N050Eastern Arctic Small ToolNorth AmericaGeneral North Americahunter-gatherersYES4000270027781
NS50Late Southern CaliforniaNorth AmericaNorthwest Coast and Californiahunter-gatherersYES3000150202315
NR50CascadeNorth AmericaPlains and Plateauhunter-gatherersYES8000500061196
NT95Early AnasaziNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhorticulturalists1300700935432
NT50Early Desert ArchaicNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhunter-gatherers100008000311484
NT55Middle–Late Desert ArchaicNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhunter-gatherers8000150551973
NT85MogollonNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinhunter-gatherers to food producers2000600412615
NT76HohokamNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinintensive agriculturalistsYES20005001574595
NT97Late AnasaziNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinintensive agriculturalists700450151216
NT93BasketmakerNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basinprimarily hunter-gatherers3000130013796
OJ50New Guinea NeolithicOceaniaMelanesiahorticulturalistsYES100001009491
OU80TonganOceaniaPolynesiahorticulturalistsYES20002007528
OV50HawaiianOceaniaPolynesiahorticulture to intensive agricultureYES80020061306
S050Andean Regional DevelopmentSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralistsYES22001300122619
SE48Highland Andean FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists3500220081916
SE49ChavínSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists28002200131782
SE65HuariSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists120090024804
SF45TiahuanacoSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralists1600900201293
SF50Aymara KingdomsSouth AmericaCentral Andesagro-pastoralistsYES900530111210
SE41Coastal Andean Early FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andeshorticulture to intensive agriculture38003000221067
SE40Coastal Andean ArchaicSouth AmericaCentral Andeshunter-gatherers to food producers7000380012573
SE47Highland Andean ArchaicSouth AmericaCentral Andeshunter-gatherers to food producers70003500141094
SE43Coastal Andean Late FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists30002200201117
SE51NazcaSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists22001200272581
SE70Andean Regional StatesSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists900530172030
SE75ChimuSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalistsYES1100480412068
SE80InkaSouth AmericaCentral Andesintensive agriculturalists800468244314
SE55MocheSouth AmericaCentral Andesother subsistence combinations19501200291384
SD50ManteñoSouth AmericaNorthwestern South AmericahorticulturalistsYES15005005875
S060Early Northwest South American LittoralSouth AmericaNorthwestern South Americaprimarily hunter-gatherersYES90005500111315

Latest update: August 8, 2016

 

Additional Formats

The Excel file above includes sequence numbers for each culture name as well as subsistence and sample types. Visit the Cross-Cultural Research section to learn more about random sampling.

Subsistence Classification

Hunter-gatherers — also called foragers; depend almost entirely (75% or more) on hunting, gathering, and fishing for subsistence

Hunter-gatherers to food producers — during the tradition the people began as hunter-gatherers and became dependent on food production (55% or more) by the end of the tradition. Food production includes combinations of hunting, gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Primarily hunter-gatherers — depend mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing (55% percent or more)

Horticulturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on simple agriculture (extensive or horticulture). Horticulture frequently requires a long fallow period. This category includes any type of agriculture that is not primarily (55% or more) intensive.

Agro-pastoralists — not any of the above. Pastoralism and horticulture/intensive agriculture combined contribute at least 75% or more to the economy.

Pastoralists — depend mostly (55% or more) on herding or pastoralism

Horticulture to intensive agriculture — at the beginning of the tradition, people depended mostly (55% or more) on horticulture and by the end of the tradition they depended mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture.

Intensive agriculturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture means a variety of techniques are used so that fields can be permanently cultivated. These techniques can include irrigation, terracing, crop rotation, plows, and/or some sort of agriculture.

Other subsistence combinations — includes other combinations of hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Not assigned — not enough information

 

 

 

 

 

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