Cultures Covered

In the eHRAF World Cultures database the cultures and ethnic groups included are organized by regions (e.g. North America), subregions (e.g. Southwest) and subsistence types (e.g. hunter-gatherers).  Every year 20-30 cultures with approximately 40,000 pages are added to eHRAF World Cultures. About 25% is new ethnographic material and the remaining material is converted from HRAF’s previous microfiche collection for the cultures added to eHRAF.

In eHRAF World Cultures all collected, analyzed and indexed ethnographic documents for a culture can be found in the Browse Cultures section (Collection Documents tab).  The ethnographic documents can also be searched using Basic and/or Advanced Search.

The following list shows all of the culture names currently covered in the eHRAF World Cultures database. Below the table you can find links to PDF and Excel Files that include additional useful information, not displayed in the table.

RegionSubregioneHRAF Culture NameOWC CODESubsistence TypePSF SCCS Docs SRS
AfricaCentral AfricaMbutiFO04hunter-gatherersYes3
AfricaSouthern AfricaLoziFQ09other subsistence combinationsYes5
AfricaNorthern AfricaShluhMW11intensive agriculturalistsYes
AfricaEastern AfricaMaasaiFL12pastoralistsYes4
AfricaSouthern AfricaBembaFQ05horticulturalistsYes7
AfricaEastern AfricaSomaliMO04pastoralistsYes4
AfricaWestern AfricaHausaMS12other subsistence combinationsYes3
AfricaWestern AfricaTivFF57horticulturalistsYes12
AfricaEastern AfricaGandaFK07intensive agriculturalistsYes1Yes
AfricaEastern AfricaAmharaMP05intensive agriculturalistsYes1
AfricaWestern AfricaKanuriMS14intensive agriculturalistsYes
AfricaCentral AfricaAzandeFO07horticulturalistsYes7
AfricaWestern AfricaWolofMS30horticulturalistsYes1
AfricaNorthern AfricaLibyan BedouinMT09pastoralistsYes
AfricaWestern AfricaDogonFA16intensive agriculturalistsYes
AfricaWestern AfricaAkanFE12horticulturalistsYes4
AfricaSouthern AfricaLakeshore TongaFR07other subsistence combinationsYes
AfricaEastern AfricaNuerFJ22agro-pastoralistsYes
AfricaSouthern AfricaOvimbunduFP13horticulturalists1Yes
AfricaWestern AfricaIgboFF26horticulturalists2Yes
AfricaEastern AfricaBanyoroFK11horticulturalistsYes
AfricaEastern AfricaBenaFN31horticulturalistsYes
AfricaSouthern AfricaBetsileoFY11intensive agriculturalists
AfricaEastern AfricaBagisuFK13horticulturalistsYes
AfricaSouthern AfricaSanFX10hunter-gatherers9
AfricaSouthern AfricaZuluFX20agro-pastoralists
AfricaEastern AfricaGusiiFL08horticulturalistsYes
AfricaWestern AfricaBambaraFA08other subsistence combinations2
AfricaWestern AfricaMossiFA28intensive agriculturalists
AfricaWestern AfricaKpelleFD06horticulturalists
AfricaWestern AfricaYorubaFF62horticulturalists
AfricaCentral AfricaRwandansFO57agro-pastoralists
AfricaSouthern AfricaTanalaFY08intensive agriculturalists1
AfricaWestern AfricaMendeFC07horticulturalists1
AfricaWestern AfricaTallensiFE11intensive agriculturalists7
AfricaEastern AfricaShillukFJ23agro-pastoralists6
AfricaEastern AfricaGikuyuFL10intensive agriculturalists3
AfricaCentral AfricaMongoFO32horticulturalists1
AfricaCentral AfricaBarundiFO58horticulturalists
AfricaSouthern AfricaKhoiFX13other subsistence combinations4
AfricaNorthern AfricaTuaregMS25agro-pastoralists1
AfricaEastern AfricaLuoFL11intensive agriculturalists
AfricaEastern AfricaTurkanaFL17pastoralists
AfricaEastern AfricaChaggaFN04intensive agriculturalists
AfricaEastern AfricaNyakyusa and NgondeFN17intensive agriculturalists6
AfricaSouthern AfricaTsongaFT06other subsistence combinations2
AfricaNorthern AfricaFellahinMR13intensive agriculturalists1
AfricaCentral AfricaTedaMS22agro-pastoralists3
AfricaNorthern AfricaBerbers of MoroccoMX03agro-pastoralists2
AfricaEastern AfricaKaffaMP14intensive agriculturalists1
AfricaWestern AfricaKatabFF38other subsistence combinations
AfricaWestern AfricaNupeFF52horticulturalists
AfricaEastern AfricaOkiekFL20hunter-gatherers
AfricaSouthern AfricaIlaFQ06horticulturalists
AfricaSouthern AfricaTongaFQ12horticulturalists
AfricaSouthern AfricaShonaFS05other subsistence combinations
AfricaWestern AfricaFonFA18horticulturalists6
AfricaCentral AfricaSukuFO46horticulturalists9
AfricaEastern AfricaKonsoMP17intensive agriculturalists4
AfricaWestern AfricaSonghaiMS20intensive agriculturalists2
AsiaEast AsiaTaiwan HokkienAD05intensive agriculturalistsYes
AsiaSouth AsiaAndamansAZ02hunter-gatherersYes2
AsiaSoutheast AsiaIbanOC06horticulturalistsYes5
AsiaSouth AsiaKhasiAR07other subsistence combinationsYes
AsiaNorth AsiaChukcheeRY02pastoralistsYes2
AsiaSouth AsiaSinhaleseAX04intensive agriculturalistsYes
AsiaSoutheast AsiaEastern TorajaOG11horticulturalistsYes4
AsiaSoutheast AsiaSouthern TorajaOG13intensive agriculturalists
AsiaNorth AsiaYakutRV02other subsistence combinationsYes
AsiaEast AsiaKoreaAA01intensive agriculturalistsYes2
AsiaSouth AsiaSantalAW42intensive agriculturalistsYes3
AsiaSouth AsiaGaroAR05horticulturalistsYes2
AsiaSoutheast AsiaIfugaoOA19intensive agriculturalistsYes7
AsiaSoutheast AsiaCentral ThaiAO07intensive agriculturalistsYes6
AsiaEast AsiaOkinawansAC07intensive agriculturalistsYes
AsiaSoutheast AsiaMentawaiansOD09horticulturalistsYes
AsiaSouth AsiaBaluchiAT02pastoralists
AsiaCentral AsiaPashtunAU04other subsistence combinations
AsiaCentral AsiaHazaraAU05intensive agriculturalists
AsiaCentral AsiaGhorbatAU07commercial economy
AsiaSouth AsiaBengaliAW69intensive agriculturalistsYes
AsiaSoutheast AsiaRungus DusunOC13horticulturalistsYes
AsiaCentral AsiaTurkmensRM02agro-pastoralists
AsiaCentral AsiaKarakalpakRN02intensive agriculturalists
AsiaCentral AsiaUzbeksRN05not assigned
AsiaCentral AsiaTajiksRO02not assigned
AsiaCentral AsiaPamir PeoplesRO03agro-pastoralists
AsiaCentral AsiaKyrgyzRP02pastoralists
AsiaCentral AsiaLepchaAK05intensive agriculturalists2
AsiaSoutheast AsiaAloreseOF05horticulturalists3
AsiaNorth AsiaKoryaksRY04primarily hunter-gatherers
AsiaCentral AsiaSherpaAK06agro-pastoralists
AsiaEast AsiaMonguorAE09intensive agriculturalists
AsiaSouth AsiaBadagaAW50intensive agriculturalists
AsiaCentral AsiaMongoliaAH01pastoralists1
AsiaCentral AsiaInner MongoliaAH06agro-pastoralists
AsiaSoutheast AsiaVietnameseAM11intensive agriculturalists1
AsiaSoutheast AsiaSemangAN07hunter-gatherers2
AsiaSouth AsiaBurushoAV07intensive agriculturalists3
AsiaEast AsiaAinuAB06hunter-gatherers3
AsiaEast AsiaMiaoAE05intensive agriculturalists
AsiaSouth AsiaTamilAW16intensive agriculturalistsYes
AsiaSouth AsiaVeddaAX05hunter-gatherers2
AsiaCaucasusAbkhaziansRI03agro-pastoralists1
AsiaCentral AsiaTibetansAJ01intensive agriculturalists
AsiaSouth AsiaBhilAW25agro-pastoralists
AsiaSouth AsiaTodaAW60pastoralists1
AsiaSoutheast AsiaJavaneseOE05intensive agriculturalists6
AsiaSoutheast AsiaBalineseOF07intensive agriculturalists5
AsiaNorth AsiaNivkhRX02primarily hunter-gatherers1
AsiaEast AsiaOkayamaAB43intensive agriculturalists3
AsiaEast AsiaYiAE04intensive agriculturalists2
AsiaSoutheast AsiaMalaysAN05intensive agriculturalists2
AsiaSouth AsiaUttar PradeshAW19intensive agriculturalists2
AsiaSouth AsiaGondAW32other subsistence combinations1
AsiaCentral AsiaKazakhRQ02pastoralists2
AsiaEast AsiaManchuAG04intensive agriculturalists1
AsiaSoutheast AsiaCambodiansAM04intensive agriculturalists1
AsiaSoutheast AsiaSemaiAN06horticulturalists
AsiaSoutheast AsiaBurmansAP04intensive agriculturalists2
AsiaSoutheast AsiaKachinAP06horticulturalists
AsiaSoutheast AsiaKarenAP07other subsistence combinations
AsiaNorth AsiaSamoyedRU04primarily hunter-gatherers
AsiaNorth AsiaNenetsRU41primarily hunter-gatherers2
AsiaSouth AsiaKolAW37intensive agriculturalists
AsiaCentral AsiaXinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionAI01not assigned
AsiaSouth AsiaTeluguAW17intensive agriculturalists
AsiaSouth AsiaNicobareseAZ07other subsistence combinations2
EuropeBritish IslesHighland ScotsES10other subsistence combinationsYes
EuropeScandinaviaSaamiEP04pastoralistsYes2
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeCroatsEF04commercial economy
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeMontenegrinsEF05agro-pastoralists
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeSerbsEF06intensive agriculturalistsYes
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeSlovenesEF07intensive agriculturalists
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeBosnian MuslimsEF09commercial economy
EuropeSouthern EuropeBasquesEX08other subsistence combinations1
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeGreeksEH01intensive agriculturalistsYes
EuropeScandinaviaIcelandersEQ01other subsistence combinationsYes
EuropeScandinaviaEarly IcelandersEQ02other subsistence combinations
EuropeSouthern EuropeImperial RomansEI09intensive agriculturalists4
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeAlbaniansEG01intensive agriculturalists4
EuropeBritish IslesBritish (1714-1815)ES03intensive agriculturalists
EuropeBritish IslesRural IrishER06agro-pastoralists2
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaTzeltalNV09horticulturalistsYes
Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoTarahumaraNU33agro-pastoralistsYes
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaKunaSB05horticulturalistsYes12
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaMaya (Yucatán Peninsula)NV10horticulturalistsYes
Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoHuicholNU19other subsistence combinations
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoZapotecNU44horticulturalists
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanDominicansST04not assigned
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanCubansSX01not assigned
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanJamaicansSY01not assigned
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaGarifunaSA12horticulturalists
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanIsland CaribST13primarily hunter-gatherers5
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoZapotecNU44horticulturalists
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoNahuaNU46other subsistence combinations
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaMam MayaNW08horticulturalists
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaMiskitoSA15primarily hunter-gatherers1
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaTalamancansSA19other subsistence combinations2
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanPuerto Ricans (Island)SU01commercial economy
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanHaitiansSV03commercial economy1
Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoHuicholNU19other subsistence combinations3
Middle EastMiddle EastKurdsMA11pastoralistsYes2
Middle EastMiddle EastPalestiniansM013commercial economy
Middle EastMiddle EastTurksMB01commercial economy
Middle EastMiddle EastIsraelisMF01commercial economy
Middle EastMiddle EastYemenisML01not assigned
Middle EastMiddle EastPalestiniansM013commercial economy
Middle EastMiddle EastIsraelisMF01commercial economy
Middle EastMiddle EastIranMA01intensive agriculturalists
Middle EastMiddle EastLurMA12agro-pastoralists
Middle EastMiddle EastBasseriMA10pastoralists2
Middle EastMiddle EastRwala BedouinMD04pastoralists1
Middle EastMiddle EastBedouinMJ04pastoralists
Middle EastMiddle EastTurksMB01commercial economy6
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesChinese CanadiansNC04commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesChinese AmericansNK06commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesCajunsNO12other subsistence combinations
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesNorth American Hasidic JewsN011commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesNorth American ArmeniansN016commercial economy
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticCopper InuitND08hunter-gatherersYes19
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsIroquoisNM09horticulturalistsYes
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesSerbian AmericansN017commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesBasque AmericansN018pastoralists
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesKorean AmericansN019commercial economy
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaTlingitNA12hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesHaitian AmericansNK07commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesCuban AmericansNK08commercial economy
North AmericaPlains and PlateauPawneeNQ18primarily hunter-gatherersYes1
North AmericaPlains and PlateauKlamathNR10hunter-gatherersYes7
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesArab CanadiansNC05commercial economy
North AmericaPlains and PlateauBlackfootNF06hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesArab AmericansNK09commercial economy
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticOjibwaNG06hunter-gatherersYes6
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinHopiNT09intensive agriculturalistsYes
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesNorth American HmongN009commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesItalian AmericansN010commercial economy
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesItalian CanadiansNC06commercial economy
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticChipewyansND07hunter-gatherers
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaQuinaultNR17hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaPomoNS18hunter-gatherers3Yes
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesChicanosN007commercial economy
North AmericaPlains and PlateauAssiniboineNF04hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaPlains and PlateauStoneyNF12hunter-gatherers
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesPuerto Ricans (Mainland)NK05commercial economy
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYokutsNS29hunter-gatherers2Yes
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinWestern ApacheNT21primarily hunter-gatherers
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsDelawareNM07primarily hunter-gatherers
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsSeminoleNN16horticulturalists
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYukiNS30hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaChinookans of the Lower Columbia RiverNR06hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinNavajoNT13agro-pastoralists
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinZia PuebloNT38intensive agriculturalistsYes
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticAlutiiqNA10hunter-gatherersYes
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticAleutNA06hunter-gatherers3
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesSea IslandersNN23commercial economy
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticWestern Woods CreeNG08hunter-gatherers
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsCherokeeNN08other subsistence combinations
North AmericaPlains and PlateauComancheNO06hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinUteNT19hunter-gatherers
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticInnuNH06hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesAmishNM06intensive agriculturalists
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsCreekNN11primarily hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinZuniNT23intensive agriculturalists4
North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesAfrican AmericansNK04commercial economy
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsWinnebago/Ho-ChunkNP12primarily hunter-gatherers
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinTewa PueblosNT18intensive agriculturalists
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinMescalero ApacheNT25hunter-gatherers
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaNuxalkNE06hunter-gatherers4
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaNuu-chah-nulthNE11hunter-gatherers
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsMi'kmaqNJ05hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaPlains and PlateauOmahaNQ21primarily hunter-gatherers4
North AmericaPlains and PlateauOsageNQ22primarily hunter-gatherers
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYurokNS31hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinHavasupaiNT14other subsistence combinations2
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinO'odhamNU79other subsistence combinations3
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticKaskaND12hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaPlains and PlateauGros VentreNQ13hunter-gatherers3
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinNorthern PaiuteNR13hunter-gatherers1
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinEastern ApacheNT08hunter-gatherers2
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsFoxNP05other subsistence combinations
North AmericaPlains and PlateauCrowNQ10hunter-gatherers
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinMaricopaNT43primarily hunter-gatherers
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticIngalikNA08hunter-gatherers3
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaTubatulabalNS22hunter-gatherers
OceaniaMelanesiaTrobriandsOL06horticulturalistsYes22
OceaniaPolynesiaTikopiaOT11horticulturalistsYes24
OceaniaAustraliaArandaOI08hunter-gatherersYes1
OceaniaPolynesiaLau FijiansOQ06other subsistence combinationsYes
OceaniaMelanesiaKapaukuOJ29intensive agriculturalistsYes3
OceaniaMicronesiaChuukOR19other subsistence combinationsYes6
OceaniaMelanesiaMalekulaOO12horticulturalistsYes
OceaniaMelanesiaSanta Cruz IslandersON13horticulturalists
OceaniaPolynesiaHawaiiansOV05other subsistence combinations
OceaniaMelanesiaOrokaivaOJ23other subsistence combinations2
OceaniaMelanesiaManusOM06hunter-gatherers7
OceaniaMicronesiaYapeseOR22other subsistence combinations10
OceaniaPolynesiaTongansOU09horticulturalists
OceaniaMicronesiaUlithiOR20other subsistence combinations
OceaniaMicronesiaWoleai RegionOR21other subsistence combinations
OceaniaAustraliaTiwiOI20hunter-gatherers2
OceaniaPolynesiaSamoansOU08horticulturalists1
OceaniaPolynesiaMaoriOZ04primarily hunter-gatherers4
OceaniaMelanesiaKwomaOJ13other subsistence combinations2
OceaniaMicronesiaMarshalleseOR11other subsistence combinations4
OceaniaMicronesiaBelauOR15other subsistence combinations1
OceaniaPolynesiaMarquesasOX06other subsistence combinations1
OceaniaMelanesiaLesuOM24other subsistence combinations4
OceaniaMelanesiaWogeoOJ27other subsistence combinations
OceaniaMelanesiaNortheastern MassimOL07other subsistence combinations
OceaniaMelanesiaTinputzON26other subsistence combinations
OceaniaMelanesiaSiwaiON19other subsistence combinations4
OceaniaPolynesiaRapa NuiOY02horticulturalists
South AmericaCentral AndesAymaraSF05horticulturalistsYes1
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoYanoamaSQ18horticulturalistsYes3
South AmericaSouthern South AmericaOnaSH04hunter-gatherersYes
South AmericaEastern South AmericaBororoSP08hunter-gatherersYes
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaKogiSC07horticulturalistsYes
South AmericaSouthern South AmericaMatacoSI07primarily hunter-gatherersYes
South AmericaEastern South AmericaGuaraníSM04other subsistence combinationsYes1
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoTukanoSQ19other subsistence combinationsYes1Yes
South AmericaEastern South AmericaBahia BraziliansSO11intensive agriculturalistsYes
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoNdyukaSR14horticulturalists
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoSaramakaSR15other subsistence combinationsYes1
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoWaraoSS18hunter-gatherers1
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoShipiboSE26horticulturalistsYes
South AmericaSouthern South AmericaYahganSH06hunter-gatherers2
South AmericaEastern South AmericaTupinambaSO09primarily hunter-gatherers5
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoMundurucuSQ13primarily hunter-gatherers5
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoBakairiSP07other subsistence combinations
South AmericaCentral AndesInkaSE13intensive agriculturalists10
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoJivaroSD09horticulturalists3
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoSirionóSF21hunter-gatherers2
South AmericaSouthern South AmericaTehuelcheSH05hunter-gatherers2
South AmericaCentral AndesMapucheSG04intensive agriculturalists4
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoBarama River CaribSR09primarily hunter-gatherers1
South AmericaCentral AndesQuito QuichuaSD15agro-pastoralists
South AmericaCentral AndesOtavalo QuichuaSD16horticulturalists
South AmericaCentral AndesSaraguro QuichuaSD17agro-pastoralists
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoCanelos QuichuaSD18horticulturalists
South AmericaSouthern South AmericaAbipónSI04hunter-gatherers1
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoNambicuaraSP17primarily hunter-gatherers4
South AmericaEastern South AmericaTapirapéSP22other subsistence combinations
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoTrumaiSP23primarily hunter-gatherers1
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoTicunaSQ20primarily hunter-gatherers
South AmericaSouthern South AmericaTerenaSM05primarily hunter-gatherers
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaGoajiroSC13pastoralists4
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaChachiSD06other subsistence combinations1
South AmericaEastern South AmericaXoklengSM03hunter-gatherers1
South AmericaEastern South AmericaCanelaSO08primarily hunter-gatherers1
South AmericaCentral AndesUru-ChipayaSF24other subsistence combinations
South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoPuméSS19other subsistence combinations

Latest Update: August 8, 2016

Related Links

The Excel file also includes sequence and installment numbers, OWC codes, region coverage (including subregions), date coverage (beginning and ending dates for cultural materials), subsistence and sample (PSF and SRS) types. The sequence numbers for each culture name make the excel table useful for generating a random sample from eHRAF. Visit the Cross-Cultural Research section to learn more about random sampling.

 

 

 

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