SCCS Cases in eHRAF

The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS) consists of 186 anthropologically described societies chosen by the sample’s creators, Murdock and White (1969). The sample tried to minimize cultural relatedness, so only one society was chosen from a given culture area. Each society is pinpointed in time and space. Researchers coding variables for this sample are expected to adhere to the specified time and place focus.

To facilitate research for those wanting to code their own variables using eHRAF World Cultures for the SCCS sample, the HRAF staff have flagged those documents that, in HRAF’s judgment, provide an appropriate match to the time and place foci of the SCCS. Note that in almost all cases, eHRAF World Cultures contains many more documents than those flagged. This is because the HRAF collections try to cover multiple times and places to facilitate understanding of change of over and of regional variation.

We have indicated matches in multiple ways. First, we have provided information in the table below. Clicking on the ethnographer name and date will bring up the publication information page for the document (authentication required). Second, in the eHRAF World Cultures database itself, you can, after performing a search, narrow your results to the societies in eHRAF that have some matching documents. When you open the first results page, the documents that match are footnoted with “S1,” “S2,” and “S3.” As explained in the footnotes, an “S1” is considered a direct match. An “S2” is considered a partial match, usually because the document covers multiple time periods or multiple cultures. An “S3” footnote is occasionally given when the time or place is somewhat ambiguous and we urge some caution in using the source.

Cultural Concordance

All cultures change over time and except for the smallest of societies, most have regional variability. Different cross-cultural samples sometimes have different time and place foci for the same culture. This presents a problem if cross-cultural researchers using eHRAF want to use some variables coded by others when testing their hypotheses. The most common way of matching across cultural samples is to look for common names.

However, matching culture names is problematic for two reasons. First, the names are not always the same in two different samples. Second, even if the same name is found, the data from the two samples may not match because the information is from a different time and/or a different place. Using information for different time and place foci is likely to increase random error, which will almost always reduce correlations.

To solve these problems for researchers, the following table provides “matches” between eHRAF and SCCS as assessed by HRAF. A “match” between two samples means that they share the same time and place focus for the same culture. Note that in contrast to other cross-cultural samples, eHRAF usually contains more than one time and place focus to give researchers the opportunity to study change over time as well as cultural variation within the society. Adapted from Ember 2007.

HRAF plans to add all the SCCS cases in future installments.  When we do so, this table will be updated.

Table: SCCS matches in eHRAF

SCCS IDSCCS DateSCCS Sample Culture NameOWC Culture NameOWC CodeeHRAF Documents
1+1860Nama or NamaquaKhoiFX13Hoernlé, 1918
Hoernlé, 1923
Hoernlé, 1925
Schultze, 1907
2+1950KungSanFX10Marshall, 1957
Marshall, 1957
Marshall, 1958
Marshall, 1959
Marshall, 1961
Marshall, 1962
Marshall, 1965
Marshall, 1976
Thomas, 1959
3+1895Thonga or BathongaTsongaFT06Junod, 1927
Junod, 1927
4+1900LoziLoziFQ09Gluckman, 1941
Gluckman, 1950 (1958 reprinting)
Gluckman, 1959
Gluckman, 1967
5+1890Mbundu or OvimbunduOvimbunduFP13Childs, 1949
6+1920SukuSukuFO46Kopytoff, 1961
Kopytoff, 1964
Kopytoff, 1965
Kopytoff, 1971
Kopytoff, 1977
Kopytoff, 1980
Kopytoff, 1981
Kopytoff, 1990
Kopytoff, 1991
7+1897Bemba or AwembaBembaFQ05Brelsford, 1944]
Richards, 1935
Richards, 1937
Richards, 1939
Richards, 1940
Richards, 1956
8+1934NyakyusaNyakyusa and NgondeFN17Wilson, 1936
Wilson, 1938
Wilson, 1939
Wilson, 1951
Wilson, 1957
Wilson, 1959
11+1920Kikuyu or AikikuyuGikuyuFL10Kenyatta, 1953
Lambert, 1956
Leakey, 1952
12+1875Ganda or BagandaGandaFK07Roscoe, 1911
13+1950Mbuti or BambutiMbutiFO04Turnbull, 1962
Turnbull, 1965
Turnbull, 1965
14+1930Nkundo MongoMongoFO32Hulstaert, 1938
16+1920Tiv or MunshiTivFF57Abraham, 1933
Akiga, 1939
Bohannan, 1952
Bohannan, 1953
Bohannan, 1953
Bohannan, 1954
Bohannan, 1957
Bohannan, 1968
Bohannan, 1968
Bohannan, 1969
Downes, 1933
Price-Williams, 1962
17+1935Ibo or IgboIgboFF26Green, [1964]
Uchendu, [1965]
18+1890Fon or DahomeansFonFA18Bay, 1995
Blier, 1995
Herskovits, 1933
Herskovits, 1967
Herskovits, 1967
Law, 1997
19+1895AshantiAkanFE12Fortes, 1950
Rattray, 1923
Rattray, 1927
Rattray, 1929
20+1945MendeMendeFC07Little, 1951
21+1950WolofWolofMS30Gamble, 1957
22+1902Bambara or BamanaBambaraFA08Henry, 1910
Monteil, 1924
23+1934TallensiTallensiFE11Fortes, 1936
Fortes, 1936
Fortes, 1937
Fortes, 1938
Fortes, 1945
Fortes, 1949
Fortes, 1955
24+1940SonghaiSonghaiMS20Rouch, 1954
Rouch, 1960
26+1900HausaHausaMS12Smith, 1955
Smith, 1957
Smith, 1960
28+1905Azande or Niam-NiamAzandeFO07Baxter, 1953
Evans-Pritchard, 1932
Evans-Pritchard, 1956
Evans-Pritchard, 1957
Evans-Pritchard, 1957
Evans-Pritchard, 1965
Evans-Pritchard, 1971
31+1910ShillukShillukFJ23Oyler, 1918
Oyler, 1919
Oyler, 1919
Oyler, 1920
Oyler, 1920
Seligman, 1932
33+1905KaffaKaffaMP14Huntingford, 1955
34+1900MasaiMaasaiFL12Hollis, 1905
Hollis, 1910
Leakey, 1930
Merker, 1910
35+1935KonsoKonsoMP17Hallpike, 1968
Hallpike, 1970
Hallpike, 1970
Hallpike, 2008
36+1900SomaliSomaliMO04Drake-Brockman, 1912
Kirk, 1905
Lewis, 1955
Lewis, 1961
37+1953AmharaAmharaMP05Messing, 1985
40+1950TedaTedaMS22Chapelle, 1957
Kronenberg, 1958
Le Coeur, 1950
41+1900TuaregTuaregMS25Benhazera, 1908
42+1926RiffiansBerbers of MoroccoMX03Coon, 1931
Pennell, 1987
43+1950EgyptiansFellahinMR13'Ammār, 1954
46+1913Rwala BedouinRwala BedouinMD04Raswan, 1947
47+1950TurksTurksMB01Helburn, 1955
Makal, 1954
Pierce, 1964
Stirling, 1957
Stirling, 1963
Stirling, 1965
48+1910Gheg AlbaniansAlbaniansEG01Durham, 1910
Durham, 1928
Hasluck, 1954
Shryock, 1988
49+110RomansImperial RomansEI09Carcopino, 1940
Loane, 1938
Pellisson, 1897
Rivenburg, 1939
50+1934BasquesBasquesEX08Caro Baroja, 1958
51+1932IrishRural IrishER06Arensberg, 1937
Arensberg, 1940
52+1950LappsSaamiEP04Pehrson, 1952
Pehrson, 1957
53+1894Yurak SamoyedNenetsRU41Engelhardt, 1899
Islavin, 1847
55+1880AbkhazAbkhaziansRI03Janašvili, 1894
57+1951KurdKurdsMA11Leach, 1940
Masters, 1953
58+1958BasseriBasseriMA10Barth, 1961
Barth, 1969
60+1938GondGondAW32Grigson, 1949
61+1900TodaTodaAW60Rivers, 1906
62+1940SantalSantalAW42Biswas, 1956
Culshaw, 1949
Mukherjea, 1962
63+1945Uttar PradeshUttar PradeshAW19Opler, 1952
Opler, 1954
64+1934BurushoBurushoAV07Lorimer, [1939]
Lorimer, 1935
Lorimer, 1938
65+1885KazakKazakhRQ02Grodekov, 1889
Hudson, 1938
66+1920Khalka MongolsMongoliaAH01Vreeland, 1973
67+1910Lolo or NosuYiAE04Lin, 1947
Tseng, 1945
68+1937Lepcha or RongLepchaAK05Gorer, 1938
Morris, 1938
69+1955GaroGaroAR05Burling, 1963
Burling, 1963
71+1965BurmeseBurmansAP04Brant, 1951
Scott, 1910
73+1930VietnameseVietnameseAM11Gourou, 1936
75+1292KhmerCambodiansAM04Zhou, 1987
76+1955Siamese/Central ThaiCentral ThaiAO07Hanks, 1962
Hanks, 1963
Janlekha, 1956
Phillips, 1966
Sharp, 1978
Textor, 1973
77+1925SemangSemangAN07Schebesta, 1954
Schebesta, 1957
78+1870NicobareseNicobareseAZ07Man, 1889
Man, 1932
79+1860AndamaneseAndamansAZ02Man, 1932
Radcliffe-Brown, 1922
80+1860VeddaVeddaAX05Bailey, 1863
Seligman, 1911
81+1925TanalaTanalaFY08Linton, 1933
82+1958Negri SembilanMalaysAN05Gullick, 1958
Swift, 1965
83+1954JavaneseJavaneseOE05Dewey, 1962
Geertz, [1960]
Geertz, [1961]
Geertz, 1968
Geertz, 1975
Jay, 1969
84+1958BalineseBalineseOF07Belo, 1936
Belo, 1936
Belo, 1949
Geertz, 1959
Geertz, 1967
85+1950Iban/Sea DayakIbanOC06Freeman, 1955
Freeman, 1955
Freeman, 1958
Freeman, 1958
87+1910ToradjaEastern TorajaOG11Adriani, 1950
Adriani, 1951
Adriani, 1951
Adriani, 1951
89+1938Alorese or AbuiAloreseOF05Du Bois, [c1944]
Du Bois, 1940
Du Bois, 1941
90+1929TiwiTiwiOI20Hart, 1939-31
Hart, 1960
91+1896Aranda or AruntaArandaOI08Spencer, 1927
92+1925OrokaivaOrokaivaOJ23Williams, 1928
Williams, 1930
94+1955KapaukuKapaukuOJ29Pospisil, 1958
Pospisil, 1958
Pospisil, 1963
95+1937KwomaKwomaOJ13Whiting, 1941
Whiting, 1970
96+1929ManusManusOM06Fortune, 1935
Mead, 1930
Mead, 1930
Mead, 1932
Mead, 1934
Mead, 1937
Mead, 1956
97+1930New IrelandLesuOM24Powdermaker, 1931
Powdermaker, 1931
Powdermaker, 1932
Powdermaker, 1933
98+1914TrobriandersTrobriandsOL06Firth, 1983
Leach, 1971
Leach, 1983
Lounsbury, 1965
Malinowski, 1916
Malinowski, 1920
Malinowski, 1920
Malinowski, 1921
Malinowski, 1922
Malinowski, 1926
Malinowski, 1926
Malinowski, 1927
Malinowski, 1929
Malinowski, 1934
Malinowski, 1935
Malinowski, 1935
Norick, c1976, 1992 copy
Robinson, 1972
Silas, 1924
Silas, 1926
Spiro, 1982
Uberoi, 1971
99+1939SiuaiSiwaiON19Oliver, 1949
Oliver, 1949
Oliver, 1949
Oliver, 1955
100+1930TikopiaTikopiaOT11Borrie, 1957
Firth, 1930
Firth, 1930
Firth, 1930
Firth, 1930-1931
Firth, 1931
Firth, 1934
Firth, 1936
Firth, 1936
Firth, 1937
Firth, 1939
Firth, 1939
Firth, 1940
Firth, 1947
Firth, 1949
Firth, 1950
Firth, 1951
Firth, 1954
Firth, 1955
Firth, 1960
Firth, 1961
Firth, 1967
Firth, 1970
104+1820MaoriMaoriOZ04Best, 1924
Buck, 1952
Firth, 1959
Hawthorn, [1944]
105+1800MarquesansMarquesasOX06Handy, 1923
106+1829SamoansSamoansOU08Turner, 1884
108+1900MarshalleseMarshalleseOR11Erdland, 1914
Krämer, 1938
Mason, 1947
Spoehr, 1949
109+1947TrukeseChuukOR19Gladwin, 1953
Goodenough, 1951
LeBar, {n.d.}
LeBar, 1964
Swartz, 1958
Swartz, 1962
110+1910YapeseYapeseOR22Born, 1903
Born, 1903
Müller, 1917
Salesius, 1906
Schneider, 1953
Senfft, 1901
Senfft, 1903
Senfft, 1907
Volkens, 1901
Walleser, 1913
111+1873PalauansBelauOR15Kubary, 2009
112+1910IfugaoIfugaoOA19Barton, 1919
Barton, 1922
Barton, 1930
Barton, 1935
Barton, 1946
Barton, 1955
Beyer, 1911
115+1915ManchuManchuAG04Shirokogorov, 1924
116+1947KoreansKoreaAA01Hewes, [n.d.]
Osgood, 1951
117+1950JapaneseOkayamaAB43Beardsley, 1972
De Vos, 1961
De Vos, 1973
118+1880AinuAinuAB06Batchelor, 1927
Sugiura, 1962
Watanabe, 1964
119+1890GilyakNivkhRX02Shternberg, 1933
121+1900ChukcheeChukcheeRY02Bogoraz-Tan, 1904 [Part 1] ; 1907 [Part 2] ; 1909 [Part 3]
Bogoraz-Tan, 1910
122+1885IngalikIngalikNA08Osgood, 1958
Osgood, 1959
Osgood, 1970
123+1824AleutAleutNA06Innokentii, 1840
Innokentii, 1840
Jochelson, 1933
124+1915Copper EskimoCopper InuitND08Cameron, 1923
Jenness, 1917
Jenness, 1921
Jenness, 1921
Jenness, 1922
Jenness, 1922
Jenness, 1923
Jenness, 1923
Jenness, 1924
Jenness, 1924
Jenness, 1946
Jenness, 1959
Merwin, 1915
Rasmussen, 1932
Ritchie, 1923
Roberts, 1925
Stefánsson, 1913
Stefánsson, 1914
Sullivan, 1922
125+1910MontagnaisInnuNH06Lips, 1947
Lips, 1947
126+1650MicmacMi'kmaqNJ05Denys, 1908
Le Clercq, 1910
127+1930Northern SaulteauxOjibwaNG06Hallowell, 1976
Hallowell, 1976
Hallowell, 1976
Hallowell, 1976
Hallowell, 1976
Hallowell, 1991
129+1900KaskaKaskaND12Honigmann, 1954
Teit, 1956
131+1875HaidaHaidaNE09Brink, 1974
Murdock, 1934
Murdock, 1934
Murdock, 1970
Swanton, 1905
132+1880BellacoolaNuxalkNE06Boas, 1892
Boas, 1900
McIlwraith, 1948
McIlwraith, 1948
134+1850YurokYurokNS31Heizer, 1952
Waterman, 1934
135+1850PomoPomoNS18Gifford, 1926
Kroeber, 1953
Loeb, 1926
136+1850YokutsYokutsNS29Beals, 1958
Gayton, 1948
137+1870PaiuteNorthern PaiuteNR13Whiting, 1950
138+1860KlamathKlamathNR10Gatschet, 1890
Pearsall, 1950
Spier, 1930
Stern, 1956
Stern, 1962
Stern, 1965
Weaver, 1983
140+1880Gros VentreGros VentreNQ13Cooper, 1957
Flannery, 1953
Kroeber, 1908
142+1867PawneePawneeNQ18Weltfish, 1965
143+1860OmahaOmahaNQ21Dorsey, 1884
Dorsey, 1896
Fletcher, 1911
Fortune, 1932
145+1800CreekCreekNN11Swanton, 1928
Swanton, 1928
147+1870ComancheComancheNO06Hoebel, 1940
Wallace, 1952
148+1870Chiricahua ApacheEastern ApacheNT08Castetter, 1936
Opler, 1941
149+1880ZuniZuniNT23Cushing, 1896
Cushing, 1920
Stevenson, 1904
Stevenson, 1909
150+1918HavasupaiHavasupaiNT14Smithson, 1959
Spier, 1928
151+1910PapagoO'odhamNU79Chona, 1936
Underhill, 1939
Underhill, 1946
152+1890HuicholHuicholNU19Lumholtz, 1898
Lumholtz, 1973
Zingg, 1938
153+1520AztecAztecsNU07Barlow, 1949
Carrasco, 1971
Caso, 1971
Dibble, 1971
Durán, 1971 [second printing 1975]
Gibson, 1971
León-Portilla, 1962
Monzon, 1949
Motolinía, 1951
Sahagún, 1950
Sahagún, 1951
Sahagún, 1952
Sahagún, 1953
Sahagún, 1954
Sahagún, 1957
Sahagún, 1959
Sahagún, 1961 [1974 reprint]
Sahagún, 1963 [1975 reprint]
Sahagún, 1969
Soustelle, 1961
156+1921MiskitoMiskitoSA15Conzemius, 1932
157+1917BribriTalamancansSA19Gabb, 1876
Skinner, 1920
158+1927Cuna (Tule)KunaSB05Densmore, 1926
Holmer, [n.d.]
Holmer, 1951
Nordenskiöld, 1928
Nordenskiöld, 1929
Nordenskiöld, 1930
Nordenskiöld, 1930
Nordenskiöld, 1931
Nordenskiöld, 1938
Stout, 1946
Stout, 1947
Wassén, 1949
159+1947GoajiroGoajiroSC13Bolinder, 1957
Gutiérrez de Pineda, 1948 [1950]
Pineda Giraldo, 1947 [1950]
Santa Cruz, 1941
160+1935HaitiansHaitiansSV03Herskovits, 1937
161+1650CallinagoIsland CaribST13Bouton, 1640
Breton, 1665
Breton, 1929
Du Tertre, 1667
Rouse, 1948
162+1935WarrauWaraoSS18Turrado Moreno, 1945
163+1965YanomamoYanoamaSQ18Chagnon, 1967
Chagnon, 1968
Layrisse, 1962
164+1932Barama CaribBarama River CaribSR09Gillin, 1936
165+1928SaramaccaSaramakaSR15Herskovits, 1934
166+1850MundurucuMundurucuSQ13Murphy, 1958
Murphy, 1959
Murphy, 1959
Murphy, 1960
Tocantins, 1877
167+1939CubeoTukanoSQ19Goldman, 1963
168+1908CayapaChachiSD06Barrett, 1925
169+1920JivaroJivaroSD09Karsten, 1935
Rivet, 1907
Rivet, 1908
171+1530IncaInkaSE13Cieza de León, 1864
Cieza de León, 1883
Cobo, 1893
Guamán Poma de Ayala, 1936
Molina, 1873
Polo de Ondegardo, 1873
Polo de Ondegardo, 1916
Rowe, 1946
Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamayhua, 1873
Vega, [1963]
172+1940AymaraAymaraSF05Tschopik, 1951
173+1942SirionoSirionóSF21Holmberg, [1946]
Holmberg, 1950
174+1940NambicuaraNambicuaraSP17Lévi-Strauss, 1943
Lévi-Strauss, 1945
Lévi-Strauss, 1948
Lévi-Strauss, 1948
175+1938TrumaiTrumaiSP23Murphy, [1955]
176+1915TimbiraCanelaSO08Nimuendaju, 1946
177+1550TupinambaTupinambaSO09Léry, 1880
Léry, 1906
Soares de Souza, 1851
Staden, 1928
Thevet, 1878
180+1932AweikomaXoklengSM03Henry, 1941
181+1890CayuaGuaraníSM04Hanke, 1956
183+1750AbiponAbipónSI04Dobrizhoffer, 1822
184+1950MapucheMapucheSG04Faron, 1961
Faron, 1964
Hilger, 1957
Titiev, 1951
185+1870Tehuelche or PatagonTehuelcheSH05Musters, 1872
Musters, 1873
186+1865YahganYahganSH06Gusinde, 1937
Lothrop, 1928

 

 

References

Ember, Carol R. 2007. “Using the HRAF Collection of Ethnography in Conjunction With the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and the Ethnographic Atlas”. Cross-Cultural Research 41:  396-427.

Murdock, George Peter and Douglas R. White. 1969. “Standard Cross-Cultural Sample.” Ethnology. 9:329-369.