Found 829 Documents across 83 Pages (0.011 seconds)
  1. Correlations in the population structure of music, genes and languageBrown, Steven - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2014 - 6 Hypotheses

    By testing relationships between musical, geographic, genetic, and linguistic distance among nine indigenous groups in Taiwan, the researchers aim to quantitatively evaluate a developing theory of coevolution between these traits. An especially strong correlation between musical variability and genetic distance suggests that music may possess worldwide time depth, diversity, and universality equal to or greater than that of language, and could thus serve as a complementary marker for reconstruction of long-term population shifts.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. Population migration and the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globeChen, Chuansheng - Evolution and Human Behavior, 1999 - 4 Hypotheses

    Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exhibits the largest number of polymorphisms of any dopamine receptor yet identified, and variation in DRD4 has been linked to variation in traits such as novelty-seeking and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. DRD4 also exhibits large variation between populations. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that natural selection acting on DRD4 may account for variation in between-population migratory patterns, using genetic and historical data from 39 populations.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. Combination of Genetic and Humanitarian (Cross-Cultural) Methods for the Identification of Human Genes Involved in the Process of Adaptation to Evolutionary New Environmental FactorsBorinskaya, S. A. - Russian Journal of Genetics, 2015 - 7 Hypotheses

    Researchers used population samples from the ALFRED database and the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), in conjunction with 68 populations from the Ethnographic Atlas, in an attempt to identify specific genes involved in human adaptation to environmental stimuli as a result of migration. Specifically, researchers looked at the allele frequencies for four different genes typically associated with varying subsistence forms. These four included the APOE apolipoprotein E gene (lipid transport and regulation of cholesterol), LCT lactase gene (enzyme that decomposes lactose), CCR5 chemokine receptor gene (deletion mutation that decreases immunodeficiency virus propagation), and the ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase gene (important enzyme for alcohol metabolism). The allele frequencies were then analyzed to distinguish any possible correlation to economic-culture types using a two-sided Spearman Test. Researchers also ran a similar test to analyze allele frequencies and pathogen load, however the majority of the findings were not statistically significant. The findings suggest that there is a definite relationship between the allele frequencies and type of economy of a population.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adultsHolden, Clare - Human Biology, 1997 - 4 Hypotheses

    The ability of adults to digest lactose is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin, a distribution thought to be a result of genetic adaptation to drinking milk from domestic livestock. Two additional hypotheses have been proposed to explain the distribution of high lactose digestion capacity: (1) supplemental calcium in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin D deficiency and (2) maintenance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly arid environments. However, these hypotheses are confounded by the shared ancestry of populations whose lactose digestion capability has been tested. Therefore, the authors test all three hypotheses using a phylogenetic comparative method for 62 cultures.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Folktale transmission in the arctic provides evidence for high bandwidth social learning among hunter–gatherer groupsRoss, Robert M. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2016 - 4 Hypotheses

    The myths, legends, and folktales of nearby groups tend to more alike than those of more distant groups. Three competing models attempt to explain this distribution of cultural traits: (1) vertical transmission, (2) horizontal transmission, and (3) independent innovation. The authors examine 18 Arctic hunter-gatherer groups to quantify the extent to which geographic distance, cultural ancestry, and effective population size predict overlap in folktale inventories.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Human variation in the shape of the birth canal is significant and geographically structuredBetti, Lia - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2018 - 5 Hypotheses

    The 'obstetrical dilemma' postulates that human females evolved a pelvis shape that was a compromise between the needs of bipedal locomotion and the need for a wider pelvic opening. The implication is that the female pelvis should be similar across the world. Researchers examine the size and shape of the birth canal of female individuals in the Goldman and Human Origin datasets. Contrary to the 'obstetrical dilemma,' the findings reveal that there is indeed significant geographical variation in size and shape of the female birth canal. Neutral evolutionary processes, particularly genetic drift, were suggested to be influential in female canal shape whereas the predicted effects of climate on canal diversity were only minimal.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. Dependence nurturance and monotheism: a cross-cultural studyTerry, Roger L. - The Journal of Social Psychology, 1971 - 2 Hypotheses

    The main premise of the present study is to investigate the relationship between monotheism and dependence nurturance during early childhood and adulthood. Terry notes the human need to explain and understand the world, and theorizes that this understanding derives from personal experience, learned information, and supernatural explanation. Terry tests the hypothesis that supernatural explanations (monothestic beliefs) will be formulated if individuals cannot depend on their own experiences and/or others to reduce uncertainty (a result of independence training).

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptationMathew, Sarah - Proc. R. Soc. B, 2015 - 8 Hypotheses

    Inter-group variation is greater in humans than in any other animal, and scholars continue to debate the cause of this diversity. Two competing explanatory models of human variation emphasize either (1) ecological differences and "evoked" culture or (2) population-level effects of cultural transmission. The former emphasizes mechanisms that operate within a single generation, while the latter emphasizes cumulative cultural history operating over many generations. To test these competing models, the authors measured the relative power of ecological variables as compared to culture history to predict behavioral variation in 172 western North American tribes. Culture history is subdivided into culture phylogeny (based on language phylogeny) and spatial distance.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. The biogeographic origins of novelty-seeking traitsGören, Erkan - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researcher looks for empirical evidence of natural selection as an explanation for worldwide variation in novelty-seeking behavior. Examining the relationship between variability in frequency of the DRD4 exon III 7-repeat allele variant (a variant theorized to stifle dopamine reception and thus encourage compensatory novelty-seeking behavior) and migratory distance from prehistoric humans' origin point in East Africa yields a positive correlation. After controlling for various biogeographic indicators, the researcher theorizes that presence of the DRD4 exon III 7-repeat variant provided an exploratory urge and evolutionary advantage to hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who migrated into unfamiliar environments.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Cultural trait transmission and missing data as sources of bias in cross-cultural survey research: explanations of polygyny re-examinedDow, Malcolm M. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2009 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study retests the work by Ember, Ember and Low (2007) on male mortality and pathogen stress as predictors of nonsororal polygyny. The authors argue that the work of Ember, Ember, and Low is biased because it does not include a variable for cultural trait transmission. Restesting the original Ember, Ember and Low data, including a variable for cultural trait transmission, authors find that male mortality and pathogen stress loose their significance and cultural trait transmission is the only significant predictor of nonsororal polygyny.

    Related DocumentsCite