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  1. Traditional agriculture practices and the sex ratio todayAlesina, Alberto - PLoS ONE, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study investigates the relationship between historical utilization of the plow and modern sex ratios. The authors argue that in societies without the plow subsistence is generally egalitarian with both men and women contributing. However, the use of the plow requires more physical strength which, they argue, leads to a preference for boys and, thus, men. Therefore, in cultures that use the plow, this is reflected in male-biased sex ratios which are negotiated by way of practices like sex-selective abortions, infanticide, and/or differential access to resources based on sex.

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  2. On the origins of gender roles: Women and the ploughAlesina, Alberto - The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2013 - 20 Hypotheses

    There is considerable variation both within and across societies in attitudes towards female employment outside of the household. In some societies, the dominant belief is that women should have equal opportunity to work outside the home, while in others women are strongly discouraged from working outside of the domestic sphere. Here the authors use pre-industrial ethnographic data and contemporary observations of gender inequality to test the hypothesis that cultural attitudes regarding the appropriateness of women working outside of the household are rooted in the ancestral adoption of plough cultivation. Contemporary measures of gender inequality assess variation across countries, ethnic groups, and individuals.

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  3. The relative decline in women’s contributions to agriculture with intensificationEmber, Carol R. - American Anthropologist, 1983 - 8 Hypotheses

    This article presents theory and hypothesis tests that suggest that the decline of women's contribution to intensive agriculture is related to increases in fertility and domestic work associated with cereal crops. Additionally, men in agricultural societies are less likely to invest time in hunting and warfare, so their contribution of agricultural labor relative to women's increases.

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  4. Explaining current fertility dynamics in tropical Africa from an anthropological perspective: a cross-cultural investigationKorotayev, Andrey V. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2016 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper presents tests of the relationships between tropical African agriculture and cultural variables regulating reproduction in order to examine a theory which suggests that the lagging or absence of tropical Africa's demographic transition is the result of pervasive 'pro-natal' cultural practices. Strength of association between these factors and non-plow agriculture, the traditional method of farming in tropical Africa, leads the authors to suggest that women's larger subsistence role in these societies favors extended family households in which child-rearing responsibilities can be shared, and polygynous marriage systems in which co-wives can contribute substantially to the family's labor productivity. These, along with erosion of regulations on postpartum sex and birth spacing which were prevalent prior to modernization, are identified as characterstics which have and will continue to resist fertility decline.

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  5. The invention of the plowPryor, Frederic L. - Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1985 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines three theories of the origin of the plow. The author rejects the universalist approach on the basis that not all cultures that are aware of the plow adopt its use. Findings provide partial support for a theory focused on population density, particularly the importance of fallowing practices and labor productivity. The author’s own ecological approach, pointing to a culture’s staple food as a crucial variable, also receives empirical support.

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  6. Fertility and mode of subsistence: a phylogenetic analysisSellen, Daniel W. - Current Anthropology, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study tests for a relationship between subsistence type and fertility using phylogenetic and statistical analyses. The authors find a clear relationship between dependence on agriculture and fertility among non-permanently settled groups.

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  7. Sexually transmitted disease and gender roles: an index of cultural evolutionMackey, Wade C. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and several parameters of a nation’s demography, including income, mortality, labor, fertility, and homicide rates. Associations were supported by statistical tests. Regional differences are considered; Europe and the Muslim area had lower level of women’s HIV/AIDS infection. Four cultural adaptations to combat STDs are discussed.

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  8. Patriarchal Norms, Bargaining, and Gendered Attitudes on Intimate Partner ViolenceEckenrode, Anna - , 2018 - 24 Hypotheses

    In this master's thesis, the author seeks to understand the determinants of attitudes on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). She does this by correlating data on socioeconomic status, age, and education against survey data about IPV attitudes from Demographic and Health Surveys that were conducted in 56 countries across the world. Additionally, for purposes of analysis, she also ran correlations between attitudes and ancestral plow use data some the Ethnographic Atlas as a proxy for the presence of patriarchal norms. Finally, and most uniquely, the author conducted relational analyses between couples in order to gauge how IPV attitudes were influenced by the attitudes of a person's partner. The author concludes with suggestions of how this information can be used by policymakers in order to reduced and ultimately eliminate IPV.

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  9. Witchcraft beliefs and witch hunts: an interdisciplinary explanationKoning, Niek - Human Nature, 2013 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article posits an explanation of witchcraft based on developments of subsistence type and social stratification. In small foraging bands, individuals' fear systems evolved to detect deceit and other social dliemmas. Following a transition to farming communities, the fear system could become overstimulated, resulting in accusations of witchcraft. Various factors such as centralization of political control, property rights, and urbanization mark a shift toward more collectivist forms of social paranoia.

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  10. Marital structure and economic systemsLee, Gary R. - Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1979 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article tests a broad hypothesis that marital structure is associated with economic type. Results indicate that where women's potential contribution to subsistence is high (as in gathering and agricultural societies), women's contribution is positively associated with polygyny. By contrast, in fishing, hunting, and herding societies, female contribution to subsistence is generally minimal and has a negative association with polygyny.

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