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  1. Resource stress predicts changes in religious belief and increases in sharing behaviorSkoggard, Ian - Human Nature, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    Using multilevel modeling and society-level regressions as well as mediational path modeling, the authors test two alternative models that consider how resource stress, religious beliefs, and beyond-household food and labor sharing may be related. The resource stress model suggests that high resource stress has two consequences: 1) that such stress may lead to beliefs that gods and spirits are associated with weather and 2) that resource stress leads to more sharing. Furthermore, this model suggests that the relationship between resource stress and sharing is not mediated by god beliefs. The alternative model considered, the moralizing high god model, suggests that resource stress will lead to more sharing but it is mediated by moralizing high gods. Before testing the path models, the authors first consider the relationships between resource stress and beliefs about high gods, superior gods, and minor spirits involvement with weather. Since the results were strongest for high gods, the path models focused on high gods. The results largely support the resource stress model rather than the high god moralizing model.

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  2. The evolution of daily food sharing: A Bayesian phylogenetic analysisRingen, Erik J. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2019 - 8 Hypotheses

    The research examines daily food sharing norms of 73 preindustrial societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Multilevel regression models reveal that hunting and less predictable environments are not indicative of everyday food sharing, but offer support for many other predictions. Animal husbandry, external trade, daily labor sharing, and the presence of food storage are all predictive of daily food sharing practices whereas sharing is less common amongst large and stratified societies. These results align with evolutionary theories for food sharing practices.

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  3. Food and its vicissitudes: a cross-cultural study of sharing and nonsharingCohen, Yehudi A. - Social Structure and Personality, 1961 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between early food gratification, emotional predispositions to share food with others, and community systems. Results suggest that gratification of food needs varies with community type, and young children who receive food whenever they cry or ask are more likely to share food in adulthood. In broader terms, the need to receive from others is gratified differently under different sociological conditions, and these differences influence individuals toward divergent socially patterned behaviors in adulthood.

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  4. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  5. Scars for war: evaluating alternative signaling explanations for cross-cultural variance in ritual costsSosis, Richard - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2007 - 11 Hypotheses

    This article uses signaling theory and tests for a relationship between costly male rites and frequency of warfare.

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  6. Predictions derived from the theories of kin selectionEssock-Vitale, Susan M. - Ethnology and Sociobiology, 1980 - 5 Hypotheses

    This paper presents a series of predictions that are derived from the assumption that kin selection an altruism are evolved components of human social behavior. Several examples from the anthropological literature that pertain to these predictions are discussed. Data presented are mostly consistent with the predictions.

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  7. Identity fusion, outgroup relations, and sacrifice: A cross-cultural testPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Cognition, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers tested the popular identity fusion theory, which states that while maintaining one’s own individual identity, a deep affinity with one’s group can contribute to sacrifice for that group, in conjunction with their own hypotheses, using a behavior economic experiment. The experiment looked at whether after rolling a die to determine which cup a coin was placed into, participants actually followed the rules, or favored themselves (by putting the coin into their own cups at a disproportionate rate). The findings state that while on average, the individual participants did indeed favor themselves, those with higher ingroup fusion were more likely to sacrifice coins to other members of their ‘ingroup.' The experiments were conducted in 8 culturally diverse field sites.

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  8. Food resource periodicity and cooperation values: a cross-cultural considerationPoggie, Jr., John J. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1995 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines socialization for cooperation as a function of economic production. The author theorizes that in societies where large amounts of food production labor must be accomplished quickly, there is a higher cultural value placed on cooperation.

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  9. God's punishment and public goodsJohnson, Dominic D.P. - Human Nature, 2005 - 9 Hypotheses

    This study tests the relationship between supernatural punishment (indexed by the importance of moralizing "high gods") and several proxy measures of cooperation. Results suggest that the presence of high gods is associated with money and credit, credit source, community size, jurisdictional hierarchy beyond the local community, and sanctions.

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  10. General evolution and Durkheim's hypothesis of crime frequency: A cross-cultural testLeavitt, Gregory C. - The Sociological Quarterly, 1992 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper is an investigation into the relationship between social differentiation as a proxy for societal 'development' and various categories of crime. A positive relationship is interpreted by the author as empirical cross-cultural support for Durkheim's theory that these two factors will increase together as parallel processes of 'sociocultural evolution'.

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