Found 918 Documents across 92 Pages (0.009 seconds)
  1. RETRACTED: Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world historyWhitehouse, Harvey - Nature, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers tackle the moral gods hypothesis which proposes that moral gods enabled large-scale societies to evolve. They use 414 societies spanning 10,000 years in Seshat: Global History Databank and code 51 measures of social complexity and four measures of moral gods. The findings of the present study challenge the moral gods hypothesis. In the societies studied, complex societies appear to precede moral gods rather than the inverse of moral gods preceding complex societies.

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  2. Punishment and social organization: a study of durkheim's theory of penal evolutionSpitzer, Steven - Law & Society Review, 1975 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study empirically tests Durkheim’s theories of punishment in a sample of preindustrial societies. Analysis shows little support for five hypotheses derived from Durkheim’s theories. Findings indicate that in preindustrial societies, the intensity of punishment is associated with political integration, there are fewer collective definitions of crime, there is a higher likelihood of using material sanctions; additionally, slavery is likely to be an institutionalized means of punishment in societies with harsher sanctions.

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  3. Socioeconomic complexity, socialization, and political differentiation: a cross-cultural studyRoss, Marc Howard - Ethos, 1981 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines structural and dispositional explanations for complexity of political institutions. Analysis suggests that both socioeconomic organization and socialization variables are useful in understanding the concentration, specialization, and centralization of political power, but socioeconomic organization variables have stronger associations.

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  4. Explaining the rise of moralizing religions: a test of competing hypotheses using the Seshat DatabankTurchin, Peter - Religion, Brain & Behavior, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    How did moralizing religions rise, and what have they caused? The authors test the Big Gods theory, which suggests moralizing religions as a predictor of large-scale complex societies. In addition, they propose their hypothesis, which indicates that warfare, animal husbandry, and agricultural productivity have a role in producing moralizing religions. The results show no significant support for the Big Gods hypothesis. However, they support intergroup warfare, particularly military technologies and cavalry, as an important predictor of social complexity and moralizing religions. In addition, pastoralism has a moderate effect as a predictor for the rise of moralizing religions.

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  5. A quantitative global test of the complexity trade-off hypothesis: the case of nominal and verbal grammatical markingShcherbakova, Olena - Linguistics Vanguard, 2023 - 1 Hypotheses

    The "equi-complexity hypothesis" suggests that there is an equal complexity across languages, meaning that there are constant trade-offs between different domains. Using phylogenetic modelling in a sample of 244 languages, this study follows a diachronic perspective to explore if there is an inversed coevolution within the grammatical coding of nominal and verbal domains. The results show that while there appears to be a coevolutionary relationship between some features of these two domains, there is no evidence to support the idea that all languages maintain an overall equilibrium of grammatical complexity. Rather, the correlation nominal and verbal domains vary between lineages. Austronesian languages do not show a coevolution between the domains. Sino-Tibetan languages seem to have a positive correlation while Indo-European languages appear to have a negative correlation, meaning that this inverse coevolution can be lineage specific.

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  6. Migration, external warfare, and matrilocal residenceDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 1974 - 3 Hypotheses

    Several theories on the development of matrilocal residence are tested. The main argument put forth predicts that matrilocal residence will develop in response to a need to break up fraternal interest groups that encourage internal war and instead encourage a pattern of external war that is more beneficial in populated regions with additional group migration.

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  7. Warfare regulation: a cross-cultural test of hypotheses among tribal peoplesTefft, Stanton K. - Behavior Science Research, 1974 - 8 Hypotheses

    This paper tests "theories which suggest that there are causal-functional relationships between the dependent variables peacemaking and peace stability on the one hand and certain independent variables, such as political complexity, warrior class, warfare objectives, cultural homology and intersocietal ties, on the other hand." Significant relationships were found between the last three independent variables.

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  8. Social resilience to nuclear winter: lessons from the Late Antique Little Ice AgePeregrine, Peter N. - Global Security: Health, Science and Policy, 2021 - 1 Hypotheses

    The author analyzes conditions that might favor social resilience during the Late Antique Little Ice Age (ca. 536-556 CE). The assumption is made that climatic conditions in the Northern Hemisphere during this period of time are very similar to those that would occur during a nuclear winter. These conditions include a drop in temperature and decreased solar radiation from volcanic eruptions. Measures for social resilience come from multiple variables for social change, which are tested against measures for type of political engagement. It is argued that broad political participation is correlated with resilience.

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  9. Parental rejection, food deprivation, and personality development: tests of alternative hypothesisRohner, Ronald P. - Ethnology, 1970 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article investigates potential relationships between food deprivation, parental rejection, and personality development. Findings indicate that a series of adult personality characteristics (e.g. self evaluation and emotional responsiveness) are better predicted by parental rejection than by nutritional variables.

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  10. Aggression in fifty-eight non-literate societies: an exploratory analysisPalmer, Stuart - Annales Internationales de Criminologie, 1970 - 2 Hypotheses

    Building on previous research concerning murder and suicide, this study investigates 18 forms of aggression and explores how they might be engendered by certain child-training practices. Results show a weak connection between most forms of aggression and child-training practices, but non-literate societies do show a positive correlation between murder and suicide. The author develops a theory positing that experience of social blockage will be related to outwardly-directed aggression, whereas social loss will be related to inwardly-directed aggression.

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