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  1. Explaining the rise of moralizing religions: a test of competing hypotheses using the Seshat DatabankTurchin, Peter - Religion, Brain & Behavior, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    How did moralizing religions rise, and what have they caused? The authors test the Big Gods theory, which suggests moralizing religions as a predictor of large-scale complex societies. In addition, they propose their hypothesis, which indicates that warfare, animal husbandry, and agricultural productivity have a role in producing moralizing religions. The results show no significant support for the Big Gods hypothesis. However, they support intergroup warfare, particularly military technologies and cavalry, as an important predictor of social complexity and moralizing religions. In addition, pastoralism has a moderate effect as a predictor for the rise of moralizing religions.

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  2. No strong evidence for universal gender differences in the development of cooperative behaviour across societiesHouse, Bailey - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the role of gender in within-society variation in cooperative behavior, and whether gender differences in cooperation emerge similarly across diverse societies. The authors use cross-cultural datasets of 4- to 15-year-old children's preferences for equality in experimental tasks measuring prosociality and fairness to investigate these questions. They find that gender has little impact on the development of prosociality and fairness within the datasets, and there is not much evidence for substantial societal variation in gender differences. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the nature and origin of gender differences in cooperation and for future research.

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  3. Cooperation and trust across societies during the COVID-19 pandemicRomano, Angelo - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 5 Hypotheses

    Researchers used various hypotheses to determine if cross-country differences in trust and cooperation would predict prosocial COVID-19 responses and policies. Using individual surveys from 34,526 participants from 41 countries, there were no significant associations between trust and cooperation and prosocial behavior, motivation, regulation, or stringency of policies. While the researchers did find significant variation among cross-country individuals, these results were unable to predict country-level prosocial responses.

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  4. Supernatural punishment and individual social compliance across culturesBourrat, Pierrick - Religion, Brain & Behavior, 2011 - 3 Hypotheses

    Derived from the fear of supernatural punishment hypothesis, this paper explores whether the prosocial attitude of a group or individuals will increase with the threat of punishment from a high god or visible supernatural agent, such as sorcerers and witches. The author found that fear of supernatural punishment did not affect prosocial behavior and suggested that religious beliefs may give rise to institutions with the task of enforcing social compliance rather than direct control.

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  5. Cultural correlates of the regulation of premarital sex behaviorMurdock, George Peter - Process and Pattern in Culture: Essays in Honor of Julian H. Steward, 1964 - 6 Hypotheses

    This chapter examines the variables that favor restrictive premarital sex norms. Findings indicate that subsistence economy, technology, population size, political integration, belief in a high god, and residence are all correlated with premarital sex norms.

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  6. The relevance of family cohesiveness as a determinant of premarital sexual behavior in a cross-cultural sampleZern, David - Journal of Social Psychology, 1969 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study examines the lineal-collateral value orientation, wherein “emphasis is placed on the individual as an integral part of an extended family type of structure which is primary” (3). Analysis suggests this value orientation is associated with restriction of premarital sexual practices and pregnancy.

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  7. The Effectiveness of Indigenous Conflict Management Strategies in Localized ContextsLundy, Brandon D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 4 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand how the conflict resolution strategies of indigenous and non-indigenous groups differ in their efficacy. The authors suggest that indigenous methods of conflict resolution are more effective than non-indigenous methods by demonstrating that subjects from the Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM) associated with indigenous conflict management (ICM) will co-occur less frequently with OCM terms related to conflict than subjects related to non-ICM. They tested this by selecting OCM subjects that they felt best represented ICM, non-ICM, and instances of conflict and using chi-square tests to show how often these subjects co-occurred. They subsequently split up the "conflict" variable into four forms of conflict in order to show whether any of these forms might be more frequently found associated with ICM or non-ICM subjects. The results showed that conflict subjects were more likely to co-occur with non-ICM subjects, and that sociocultural/interpersonal conflicts were more likely to be associated with ICM subjects, whereas political conflicts were more likely to be associated with non-ICM subjects.

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  8. Values and evolutionary psychologyHorne, Christine - Sociological Theory, 2004 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article uses an evolutionary psychological approach to hypothesize about the relationships between norms regarding male and female sexual behavior and female independence. Results suggest that more female independence is related to more permissive sex norms.

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  9. Mortuary practices: their study and their potentialBinford, Lewis R. - Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices, 1971 - 1 Hypotheses

    A literature review of burial customs and their related assumptions and data orientations is presented. A cross-cultural study suggests there are associations between measures of mortuary ritual variety and societal structural complexity.

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  10. A cross cultural survey of some sex differences in socializationBarry III, Herbert - Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1957 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper explores sex differences in socialization for boys and girls after describing the worldwide distribution of sex differences in five aspects of socialization; the authors explore conditions that may produce larger differences.

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