Found 802 Documents across 81 Pages (0.012 seconds)
  1. On the origins of gender roles: Women and the ploughAlesina, Alberto - The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2013 - 20 Hypotheses

    There is considerable variation both within and across societies in attitudes towards female employment outside of the household. In some societies, the dominant belief is that women should have equal opportunity to work outside the home, while in others women are strongly discouraged from working outside of the domestic sphere. Here the authors use pre-industrial ethnographic data and contemporary observations of gender inequality to test the hypothesis that cultural attitudes regarding the appropriateness of women working outside of the household are rooted in the ancestral adoption of plough cultivation. Contemporary measures of gender inequality assess variation across countries, ethnic groups, and individuals.

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  2. Fertility and the ploughAlesina, Alberto - The American Economic Review, 2011 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers examine Boserup's (1970) theory that variation in traditional agricultural practices shape gender roles by examining the relationship between historical plough use and contemporary fertility rates and preferential attitudes towards fertility. Contrary to expectation, tests show a negative relationship between plough use and both of these variables. The authors theorize that since children are less capable of performing the intensive labor required by plough agriculture compared to hoe agriculture, adoption of the plough deincentivized increased fertility and reduced its value among agriculturalists.

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  3. Patriarchal Norms, Bargaining, and Gendered Attitudes on Intimate Partner ViolenceEckenrode, Anna - , 2018 - 24 Hypotheses

    In this master's thesis, the author seeks to understand the determinants of attitudes on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). She does this by correlating data on socioeconomic status, age, and education against survey data about IPV attitudes from Demographic and Health Surveys that were conducted in 56 countries across the world. Additionally, for purposes of analysis, she also ran correlations between attitudes and ancestral plow use data some the Ethnographic Atlas as a proxy for the presence of patriarchal norms. Finally, and most uniquely, the author conducted relational analyses between couples in order to gauge how IPV attitudes were influenced by the attitudes of a person's partner. The author concludes with suggestions of how this information can be used by policymakers in order to reduced and ultimately eliminate IPV.

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  4. Sexual division of labor in agricultureBurton, Michael L. - American Anthropologist, 1984 - 7 Hypotheses

    Authors Michael Burton and Douglas White present and test an ecological model for the process of agricultural intensification that aims to explain variance in (and the reduction in) female contribution to agriculture. The model synthesizes and expands upon findings put forth by previous studies in order to create a more comprehensive design. Results suggest that the strongest predictors of female contribution to agriculture are the number of dry months, the importance of domesticated animals to subsistence, and the use of the plow in farming. Crop type, although a weaker predictor, is also supported.

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  5. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  6. Factors in the division of labor by sex: a cross-cultural analysisMurdock, George Peter - Ethnology, 1973 - 9 Hypotheses

    This article investigates factors influencing the division of labor by gender, including occupation specialization, the type of material labor involves, the presence of the plow, nomadism, and the advantage that a product may yield to either sex. Hypotheses are widely supported.

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  7. Understanding cultural persistence and changeGuiliano, Paola - Review of Economic Studies, 2020 - 3 Hypotheses

    Derived from the evolutionary anthropology theory, this study examines the difference of importance placed on traditions and customs between cultures. The authors found that descendants from regions with less climatic stability place less emphasis on tradition and customs than those from more stable environments. The authors suggest that with climatic stability, the traditions and customs which have evolved and benefited the previous generations will be passed on to the next, therefore promoting cultural persistence.

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  8. Marital structure and economic systemsLee, Gary R. - Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1979 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article tests a broad hypothesis that marital structure is associated with economic type. Results indicate that where women's potential contribution to subsistence is high (as in gathering and agricultural societies), women's contribution is positively associated with polygyny. By contrast, in fishing, hunting, and herding societies, female contribution to subsistence is generally minimal and has a negative association with polygyny.

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  9. Toward a theory of the status of womenSanday, Peggy Reeves - American Anthropologist, 1973 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study tests an ecological-economic theory of female contribution to subsistence, focusing on subsistence type as a potential correlate. In an exploratory analysis, 28 independent variables (not all listed below) are examined. The relationship between female contribution to subsistence and female status is also examined.

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  10. Sex, power, and resources: ecological and social correlates of sex differencesLow, Bobbi S. - International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 1990 - 15 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on ecological correlates of sexual division in the control of resources. The author tests several ecological theories put forth by others. Sex coalitions are examined in humans, and sexual dimorphism in resource acquisition and control is discussed.

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