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  1. War, peace, and marital residence in pre-industrial societiesDivale, William Tulio - Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1976 - 8 Hypotheses

    This article tests a series of hypotheses differentiating internal warfare and external warfare. Results support the theory that internal warfare is a population control mechanism more common in patrilocal societies, whereas external warfare occurs between two societies, one of which recently migrated and adopted matrilocal residence. Based on these findings, the authors assert that internal warfare can be regulated while external warfare cannot.

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  2. The evolution of war: a cross-cultural studyOtterbein, Keith F. - , 1970 - 30 Hypotheses

    This book investigates the evolution of military organizations and their activities. Hypotheses frequently relate military organizations to political variables. Data suggested that more politically centralized societies have more sophisticated military organizations which are more likely to be successful in conflict (though military sophistication does not appear to deter attack).

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  3. Societies within peace systems avoid war and build positive intergroup relationshipsFry, Douglas P. - Humanities & Social Sciences Communications, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors explore cultural variables that they propose contribute to the maintenance of peace in non-warring societies. These variables are compared in 16 peaceful systems (as coded by the authors from anthropological and historical data) and in 30 warring societies taken from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). Findings associate more peaceful cultures with peace systems, and non-peaceful cultures with warring societies.

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  4. Risk, uncertainty, and violence in eastern Africa: a regional comparisonEmber, Carol R. - Human Nature, 2012 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article examines resource problems and warfare in a sample of societies from eastern Africa. The frequency and predictability of resource problems are examined, as are two other dimensions of warfare: resource-taking and commission of atrocities. Differences between state and nonstate societies, as well as pacified and non-pacified societies, are also examined and shown to affect associations between resource and warfare variables.

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  5. Internal war: a cross-cultural studyOtterbein, Keith F. - American Anthropologist, 1968 - 9 Hypotheses

    This study examines how social structure, political organization, and intersocietal relations may affect the incidence of internal warfare (between culturally similar political communities). Results show that in uncentralized political systems, fraternal interest groups and unauthorized raiding parties may increase the incidence of internal war.

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  6. Male aggressiveness as intrasexual contest competition in a cross-cultural sampleCarter, Tara-Lyn - Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present study tests the theory that intrasexual selection or male attraction may explain variation in male aggression in a sample of 78 societies. Measures of intrasexual selection include: male subsistence, male war mortality, polygyny, sex ratio, and wives variance. The authors claim support for the theory.

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  7. Leisure and cultural complexityChick, Garry - Cross-Cultural Research, 2011 - 3 Hypotheses

    There is disagreement between existing theories on the relationship between leisure time and cultural complexity. This study tests Chick's (1986) hypothesis that simple and complex societies have more free time than those of moderate complexity. The relationship between cultural complexity and the economic productivity of children is also examined.

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  8. The relative decline in women’s contributions to agriculture with intensificationEmber, Carol R. - American Anthropologist, 1983 - 8 Hypotheses

    This article presents theory and hypothesis tests that suggest that the decline of women's contribution to intensive agriculture is related to increases in fertility and domestic work associated with cereal crops. Additionally, men in agricultural societies are less likely to invest time in hunting and warfare, so their contribution of agricultural labor relative to women's increases.

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  9. Resource scarcity drives lethal aggression among prehistoric hunter-gatherers in central CaliforniaAllen, Mark W. - PNAS, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    Previous research into the origins of human violence and warfare has oftentimes been inconclusive and controversial. This paper examines two alternative theories as to the evolution of human violence using archaeological records on sharp force trauma (SFT) and blunt force trauma (BFT). The study is limited to 13 different California ethnolinguistic groups. Researchers find that violence is not predicted by sociopolitical complexity, but rather by environmental productivity. This supports the idea that in contexts of resource scarcity, the perceived benefits to engage in lethal aggression may outweigh perceived costs.

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  10. Comment on 'correlates of political complexity'Otterbein, Keith F. - American Sociological Review, 1971 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article answers questions raised by Abrahamson (1969) about the relationship between warfare and political complexity. Significant correlations were found between political complexity and the frequency of being attacked and between frequency of attacking and military success.

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