Found 946 Documents across 95 Pages (0.063 seconds)
  1. The ultimate coercive sanctionOtterbein, Keith F. - , 1986 - 14 Hypotheses

    The author presents a comprehensive study on the prevalence, presentation, and motivation of the "ultimate coercive sanction": capital punishment, or the "death penalty". He begins by examining capital punishment across all 53 cultures for which data was present in the Probability Sample Files, and finds that capital punishment is overwhelmingly present. After discerning some general trends, the author examines how capital punishment presents itself across different kinds of political systems, and uses the results to voice support for various theories on why the capital punishment is practiced. The study concludes by stating that the capital punishment may be something that human society may never be truly rid of, but greater societal stability may be able to reduce its prevalence.

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  2. When Saying "Sorry" Isn't Enough: Is Some Suicidal Behavior a Costly Signal of Apology?Syme, Kristen L. - Human Nature, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers coded 473 texts from 53 cultures on suicidal behavior in the Probability Sample Files looking for evidence to support a new theoretical framework called the Costly Apology Model (signaling "I am genuinely remorseful for my actions, and you can trust that I will not do it again," (7)) to explain suicidal behavior that occurs after someone violates one or more social norms. This is theorized to be distinct behavior from the Bargaining Model (signaling "My fitness is genuinely being threatened, and I need your support." (7)) which could explain suicidal behavior after someone suffers harm from another, and from the Inclusive Fitness Model, where suicide occurs as a fitness behavior when an individual cannot reproduce or has a high cost to the fitness of their kin. .

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  3. Societal complexity: an empirical test of a typology of societiesFreeman, Linton C. - American Journal of Sociology, 1957 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study investigates the concept of societal complexity, using empirical analysis to test whether its components (written language, government, etc.) vary systematically. Results suggest that societal complexity is a valid composite measure.

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  4. The Effectiveness of Indigenous Conflict Management Strategies in Localized ContextsLundy, Brandon D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 4 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand how the conflict resolution strategies of indigenous and non-indigenous groups differ in their efficacy. The authors suggest that indigenous methods of conflict resolution are more effective than non-indigenous methods by demonstrating that subjects from the Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM) associated with indigenous conflict management (ICM) will co-occur less frequently with OCM terms related to conflict than subjects related to non-ICM. They tested this by selecting OCM subjects that they felt best represented ICM, non-ICM, and instances of conflict and using chi-square tests to show how often these subjects co-occurred. They subsequently split up the "conflict" variable into four forms of conflict in order to show whether any of these forms might be more frequently found associated with ICM or non-ICM subjects. The results showed that conflict subjects were more likely to co-occur with non-ICM subjects, and that sociocultural/interpersonal conflicts were more likely to be associated with ICM subjects, whereas political conflicts were more likely to be associated with non-ICM subjects.

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  5. Law and violence: a cross-cultural studyMasumura, Wilfred T. - Journal of Anthropological Research, 1977 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article investigates how superordinate justice (whereby officials can arbitrate disputes involving homicide) and superordinate punishment (whereby officials can punish perpetrators of homicide) affect the level of internal violence in preindustrial societies. Results suggest that these two types of superordinate power do deter violent fatalities but that overall, “in order to increase violence substantively, arbitration authority over killings must be backed up by the power to penalize” (395).

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  6. Costly punishment across human societiesHenrich, Joseph - Science, 2006 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study examines costly punishment behavior across cultures. Authors conducted economic games in a variety of societies and found that costly punishment behavior occurs to varied degrees across cultures. Results also suggest that altruistic behavior is associated with costly punishment behavior.

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  7. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation studyGelfand, Michele J. - Science, 2011 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article explores differences between "tight" cultures ("have many strong norms and low tolerance of deviant behavior") and "loose" cultures ("have weak social norms and high tolerance of deviant behavior"). The tightness-looseness measure manifests in a myriad of macro and micro phenomena, from governance and religiosity to individual psychological processes. This study investigates these phenomena in modern nations rather than traditional societies. Potential ecological, historical, and socio-political predictors of tightness-looseness are also examined.

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  8. A language pattern co-occurring with violence-permisivenessWitucki, Jeannette - Behavioral Science, 1971 - 1 Hypotheses

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural study comparing features of grammatical structure and features of social structure. The author hypothesizes that the language will emphasize "self" with more personal protection within a society.

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  9. Murder and suicide in forty non-literate societiesPalmer, Stuart - Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 1965 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper tests assumptions regarding the inverse relationship between murder and suicide. Analysis suggests that murder and suicide in fact vary together, and they are also positively associated with overall punishment in a society.

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  10. Illegitimacy and social structures: cross-cultural perspectives on nonmarital birthHendrix, Lewellyn - , 1996 - 13 Hypotheses

    This book investigates sanctions for nonmarital conceptions or birth. The author conducts cross-cultural tests for hypotheses derived from a variety of theories. Results do not support one theory over another, but suggest that variables such as sociocultural complexity, family structure, descent, fraternal interest groups, sexual inequality, and child-parent relationships all affect the consequences of illegitimacy.

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