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  1. Intensification, tipping points, and social change in a coupled forager-resource systemFreeman, Jacob - Human Nature, 2012 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors present a bioeconomic model of hunter-gatherer foraging effort to quantitatively represent forager intensification. Using cross-cultural data, the model is evaluated as a means to better understand variation in residential stability and resource ownership.

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  2. Comparative Study of Territoriality across Forager SocietiesMoritz, Mark - Human Ecology, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers investigated the variation of land tenure systems across forager societies using the economic defensibility model. The study attempted to explain the variation in tenure systems across 30 hunter-gatherer societies. Using data on defense and sharing of resources among groups, and indicators of resource density, resource predictability, and competition for resources, the researchers were unable to explain the variation. This study highlights the vast range of diversity and complexity of foragers subsistence strategies, and proposes that it may be more telling to conceptualize tenure systems among hunter-gatherer societies as assemblages of multiple property regimes. While there was no overall evidence that environmental variables of resource density and predictability explain variation in tenure systems, researchers did find that increasing population density, and greater competition for resources leads to greater territoriality.

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  3. A Cross-National Test of the Uncertainty Hypothesis Religious BeliefBarber, Nigel - Cross-Cultural Research, 2011 - 3 Hypotheses

    The study looks at 137 countries and examines the relationship between disbelief in God and increased security in health, economic development and security. The findings provide additional support for the uncertainty hypothesis as there is a positive relationship between a country's health or financial growth/security and the population's disbelief in God.

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  4. Drivers of geographical patterns of North American language diversityCoelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco - Proceedings Royal Society B, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers investigated further into why and how humans speak so many languages across the globe, and why they are spread out unevenly. Using two different path analyses, a Stationary Path analysis and a GWPath, researchers tested the effect of eight different factors on language diversity. Out of the eight variables (river density, topographic complexity, ecoregion richness, temperature and precipitation constancy, climate change velocity, population density, and carrying capacity with group size limits), population density, carrying capacity with group size limit, and ecoregion richness had the strongest direct effects. Overall, the study revealed the role of multiple different mechanisms in shaping language richness patterns. The GWPath showed that not only does the most important predictor of language diversity vary over space, but predictors can also vary in the direction of their effects in different regions. They conclude that there is no universal predictor of language richness.

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  5. Was the Wealth of Nations determined in 1000 BC?Comin, Diego - American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2010 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors explore the relationship between differences in technology adoption across cultures in snapshots from 1000 BCE, 0 CE, 1500 CE, and 2002 CE. While acknowledging various flaws inherent in the ambitious scope of their dataset, a significant relationship is nonetheless revealed between technology adoption in 1500 CE and technology and income in 2002 CE after controlling for various geographic and demographic factors. The authors suggest that this persistence may occur because technology adoption is heavily dependent on stock of prior technology.

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  6. Country Religiosity Declines as Material Security IncreasesBarber, Nigel - Cross-Cultural Research, 2012 - 4 Hypotheses

    The present study attempts to replicate the Barber (2011) finding that more considerable security influences a country's disbelief in God. However, this research uses a more diverse sample and seeks to answer additional questions about religiosity and security than the previous work. The results are in line with all of the predictions and offer extra support to the uncertainty hypothesis.

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  7. How competition is viewed across cultures: a test of four theoriesHayward, R. David - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study draws upon theory from Marx, Weber, postmaterialism, individualism and system justification to explore cultural attitudes and beliefs surroudning competition. Authors test relationships between the attitudes towards competition and economic and religious variables.

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  8. Human responses to environmental extremeness and uncertainty: a cross-cultural perspectiveLow, Bobbi S. - Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, 1988 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on the effect of environmental extremes and unpredictability on human behavior and reproductive strategies. Significant correlations were found between environmental extremes and unpredictability and several variables, including mobility, subsistence mode, and degree of polygyny.

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  9. Culture and National well-being: should societies emphasize freedom or constraint?Harrington, Jesse R. - PLoS ONE, 2015 - 9 Hypotheses

    The purpose of the present study is to provide insight on the debate concerning how best to organize societies: with more freedom (looseness) or with more constraint (tightness). In a comparison of 32 nations, Harrington, Boski, and Gelfand examine the relationship between tightness/looseness and three dimensions of societal well-being: psychosocial, health, and political/economic outcomes. Findings indicate that excessive constraint and/or freedom contribute to poorer psychosocial, health, and economic/political outcomes, as well as overall national-level well-being. These results suggest that a balance of freedom and constraint is associated with optimal societal well-being.

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  10. Ascertaining, testing, and interpreting sequences of cultural developmentCarneiro, Robert L. - Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 1968 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study takes an evolutionary approach to understanding cultural development. The author suggests that "the degree of regularity in the relative order of development of any two traits is directly proportional to the evolutionary distance between them." Scale analysis supports this proposition.

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