Military deterrence in history: a pilot cross-historical survey

State University of New York Press Albany Published In Pages: ??
By Naroll, Raoul, Bullough, Vern L. , Naroll, Frada


"We found trade to be more frequent in more peaceful decades than in less peaceful ones. So too we found the exchanges of culturally influential elites such as visiting teachers, students, missionaries, royal brides, entertainers, or hostages to be more frequent in the peaceful decades"


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Point-biserial correlationSupportedp<.10-.35One-tailed

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Michaelson, Evalyn Jacobson"There is a weak correlation between adherence to the Buddhist Great Tradition and the presence of ancestral shrines. . . . Frequent ritual observances for the ancestors are not limited to one religious tradition, but they are more likely to be found in Buddhist communities than in non Buddhist communities in our sample" (88, 89-90)
Pryor, Frederic L.An association between extensive trade and money is more likely to be found in external commercial transactions than in internal commercial transactions (407).
Naroll, Raoul"Territorial gain proved unrelated to one-sided benefits [subsidy, women or honors conferred by one state on its rival] or trade. However . . . there may be a relationship between cultural exchange and territorial gain" (339-340)
Divale, William TulioSign language will be found in smaller societies whose member are more likely to sustain frequent contacts with members of neighboring societies (188).
LeVine, Robert A."The largest proportion of high-sorcery societies is found among those in which plural wives live in the same house, and the second largest proportion is found where there is the mother-child household, which does not involve many persons under one roof but almost always involves polygyny" (44)