Violence in the ethnographic record: results of cross-cultural research on war and aggression

Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past Published In Pages: 1-20
By Ember, Carol R., Ember, Melvin


Foragers will have less warfare than societies with other subsistence strategies (6).


Although this relationship is statistically significant, it does not necessarily suggest that prehistoric foragers had less warfare than prehistoric food producers. Demographic and ecological factors may have inhibited recent foragers from frequent fighting.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Mann-Whitney U-TestSupportedp<.001UNKNOWNUNKNOWN


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
Frequency Of WarfareDependentIngroup Antagonisms, Instigation Of War
Subsistence TypeIndependentFood Quest, Annual Cycle, Diet