Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societies

Evolution and Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 41(1) Elsevier Inc. Published In Pages: 397-414
By Garfield, Zachary H., Syme, Kristen L., Hagen, Edward H.


Certain primary features of leadership can be identified based upon identified leader quality and function dimensions.


The authors identified ten clusters of dimensions that were associated with one another and then associated them with features common in leaders: 1) cultural conformity and 2) prosocial competencies, which were part of a larger cluster of 3) prosocial qualities; 4) social, reproductive, and material success and 5) competencies, which were part of a larger cluster of 6) individual qualities; 7) strategy and 8) organization, which were part of a larger cluster of 9) management, and 10) prosociality. They found that these clusters corresponded well with evolutionary theories of leadership, except for the "competencies" cluster, which combined aspects of dominant leaders and prestige-based leaders.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
Dimensions of LeadershipUNKNOWNCommunity Heads, Chief Executive