Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societies

Evolution and Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 41(1) Elsevier Inc. Published In Pages: 397-414
By Garfield, Zachary H., Syme, Kristen L., Hagen, Edward H.


Shamanic leaders combine aspects of both dominance and prestige-based leader strategies.


The authors noticed that dominance and prestige-based methods of leadership were grouped together in the competencies cluster, and a Minimal Spanning Trees and K Nearest Neighbors analysis showed that ritual and medicinal qualities were clustered with supernatural, feared, or killer qualities. The authors grouped together the text records that referenced "shamans" or "supernatural", and ran a logistic elasticnet model to show that shaman leaders were associated with four leadership qualities and functions: Feared, Medicinal Functions, Ritual Functions, and Experienced/Accomplished.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Minimal Spanning Trees and K Nearest Neighbors, Logistic Elasticnet ModelSupportedUNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN