Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societies

Evolution and Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 41(1) Elsevier Inc. Published In Pages: 397-414
By Garfield, Zachary H., Syme, Kristen L., Hagen, Edward H.


Leaders deploy cognitive, social, material, and somatic capital to provide benefits and impose costs onto followers.


The authors operationalized "cognitive capital", "social capital", "material capital", "somatic capital", "provision of benefits", and "imposition of costs" using their cluster analysis, and then took note of which elements were associated with one another. They found that not all leaders have evidence for high social capital, leaders with cognitive capital provide benefits and impose costs, and somatic capital is rarely mentioned, but when it is, it is associated with providing benefits as well as imposing costs. They also found that shamans are associated with evidence for cognitive capital and imposing costs.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Descriptive StatisticsSupport ClaimedUNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN