Found 1753 Hypotheses across 176 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. Early mortality risk will have a larger impact on adolescent fertility rates than current mortality risk. (4004)Placek, Caitlyn D. - Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective ..., 2012 - 3 Variables

    This study provides the first tests of the relationships between population-level adolescent fertility rates and mortality risk at two different time points. The hypotheses are based in life-history theory, which predicts that human reproductive choices are shaped by mortality. The authors find that reproductive strategies are significantly predicted by both early (between ages 1-7) risks of mortality and current cues of mortality risk.

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  2. Current mortality risk will mediate the relationship between early mortality risk and adolescent fertility rates. (4004)Placek, Caitlyn D. - Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective ..., 2012 - 3 Variables

    This study provides the first tests of the relationships between population-level adolescent fertility rates and mortality risk at two different time points. The hypotheses are based in life-history theory, which predicts that human reproductive choices are shaped by mortality. The authors find that reproductive strategies are significantly predicted by both early (between ages 1-7) risks of mortality and current cues of mortality risk.

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  3. Combining more than one of the four demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) increases the likelihood of returning the rate of population growth to ZPG p. 12763.Gurven, Michael D. - Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to expla..., 2019 - 5 Variables

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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  4. Moral concern attributed to deities is generally low.Purzycki, Benjamin Grant - The moralization bias of gods’ minds: a cross-cultural test, 2022 - 2 Variables

    In this study, the authors inspect the relationship between religion, morality, and cooperation by examining the extent to which people associate their deities with moral concern. Using data from 2,228 individuals in 15 different field sites, they find that on average, people tend to ascribe at least some moral concern to their deities, and this effect is stable even after controlling for the influence of explicitly moralistic deities that these societies also worship. The authors also find that ratings of moral concern are not necessarily very high, even for deities that are typically considered to be moralistic, and that there is individual-level variation in the degree of moral concern attributed to deities. In addition, there is an individual-level correlation between how morally interested two selected deities are conceived to be and that being male or more educated decreases the likelihood of associating deities with moral concern. These findings challenge the longstanding belief that belief in moralistic deities is unique to certain societies or religions and instead suggest that the association between deities and moral concern is more widespread and variable, and suggest that the moral character of gods may be tied to cooperation within societies.

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  5. Moral concern attributed to local deities is lower when the dominant religion (i.e. that of the moralizing deity) is hostile or antagonistic towards the local deity.Purzycki, Benjamin Grant - The moralization bias of gods’ minds: a cross-cultural test, 2022 - 2 Variables

    In this study, the authors inspect the relationship between religion, morality, and cooperation by examining the extent to which people associate their deities with moral concern. Using data from 2,228 individuals in 15 different field sites, they find that on average, people tend to ascribe at least some moral concern to their deities, and this effect is stable even after controlling for the influence of explicitly moralistic deities that these societies also worship. The authors also find that ratings of moral concern are not necessarily very high, even for deities that are typically considered to be moralistic, and that there is individual-level variation in the degree of moral concern attributed to deities. In addition, there is an individual-level correlation between how morally interested two selected deities are conceived to be and that being male or more educated decreases the likelihood of associating deities with moral concern. These findings challenge the longstanding belief that belief in moralistic deities is unique to certain societies or religions and instead suggest that the association between deities and moral concern is more widespread and variable, and suggest that the moral character of gods may be tied to cooperation within societies.

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  6. Rates of women's infection with HIV/AIDS will be positively associated with income, infant mortality, percentage of labor force engaged in agriculture, total fertility rate, and negatively associated with murder/homicide rate (54).Mackey, Wade C. - Sexually transmitted disease and gender roles: an index of cultural evolution, 2007 - 6 Variables

    This article examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and several parameters of a nation’s demography, including income, mortality, labor, fertility, and homicide rates. Associations were supported by statistical tests. Regional differences are considered; Europe and the Muslim area had lower level of women’s HIV/AIDS infection. Four cultural adaptations to combat STDs are discussed.

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  7. Through altering mean vital rates (both fertility and mortality) it would be possible to adjust the current rapid growth of contemporary human forager groups to achieve ZPG (zero population growth) p. 12761. Gurven, Michael D. - Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to expla..., 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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  8. Through altering a population’s vital rate stochasticity it would be possible to adjust the current rapid growth of contemporary human forager groups to achieve ZPG (zero population growth) p. 12763.Gurven, Michael D. - Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to expla..., 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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  9. Through altering a population’s vital rate covariance it would be possible to adjust the current rapid growth of contemporary human forager groups to achieve ZPG (zero population growth) p. 12763. Gurven, Michael D. - Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to expla..., 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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  10. Sex ratio at birth will be negatively correlated with maternal mortality ratio.Mace, Ruth - Testing evolutionary hypotheses about human biological adaptation using cros..., 2003 - 2 Variables

    Can physiological variation in human populations be attributed to environmental variables? Arguing for the importance of phylogenetic comparative methods, the authors present the results of previous research by Holden & Mace (1997) on lactose intolerance as well as introduce new research on sex ratio at birth. The authors suggest that global variance in sex ratio at birth is an adapted response to the physiological costs of giving birth to boys in high fertility populations.

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