Found 1609 Hypotheses across 161 Pages (0.011 seconds)
  1. Levels of sovereignty will be predicted by population density, frequency of being attacked, and trade in the worldwide sample, but not in the Africa sub-sample. Osafo-Kwaako, Philip - Political centralization in pre-colonial Africa, 2013 - 5 Variables

    This article investigates commonly accepted theories that purport to explain political centralization and investigate their relevance to sub-Saharan Africa. The leading ideas for the formation of political centralization using a worldwide sample include population density, inter-state warfare, and trade. However, the authors reported these factors are not predictive of the sub-Saharan Africa sample. The authors suggest that the lack of agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa may have stunted population density therefore inhibiting political centralization and that Africa’s poor economic performance is, in part, due to lack of political centralization.

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  2. Political integration will be correlated with social stratification.Kradin, Nikolay N. - Criteria of Complexity in Evolution: Cross-Cultural Study in Archaeology of ..., 2013 - 2 Variables

    In "The Urban Revolution" (1950), V. Gordan Childe hypothesized ten traits of civilization: urban centers, occupational specialization, monumental buildings, taxation by and/or tribute to elite, isolation of ruling group(s), writing, art, long-distance trade, social solidarity reinforced through common ideologies, and state formation. The author of this study analyzes these traits, and in particular, the presence of written language, with data from two different databases, one ethnographic and one archaeological. He finds that written language is highly correlated with the other traits of civilization as hypothesized by V. Gordan Childe.

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  3. Ecological diversity promotes state centralization.Fenske, James - Ecology, trade, and states in pre-colonial Africa, 2014 - 2 Variables

    The author analyzes 440 Sub-Saharan African societies to test whether trade across ecologically diverse zones is predictive of degree of state centralization (state capacity or strength of state) in pre-colonial Africa. The author finds that diverse ecology is predictive of state capacity and that trade supports class stratification. The author also emphasizes the importance of historical contingency and ethnographic data consultation in understanding mechanisms in individual cases.

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  4. Trade (using ecological diversity as a proxy measure) across ecological boundaries promotes class stratification.Fenske, James - Ecology, trade, and states in pre-colonial Africa, 2014 - 2 Variables

    The author analyzes 440 Sub-Saharan African societies to test whether trade across ecologically diverse zones is predictive of degree of state centralization (state capacity or strength of state) in pre-colonial Africa. The author finds that diverse ecology is predictive of state capacity and that trade supports class stratification. The author also emphasizes the importance of historical contingency and ethnographic data consultation in understanding mechanisms in individual cases.

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  5. A factor analysis of sex participation in subsistence activities yielded 2 especially significant factors. Factor 2, "intensity of agriculture", loaded heavily and positively on harvesting, crop planting, crop tending, soil preparation, and land clearance" (215)Murdock, George Peter - Factors in the division of labor by sex: a cross-cultural analysis, 1973 - 6 Variables

    This article investigates factors influencing the division of labor by gender, including occupation specialization, the type of material labor involves, the presence of the plow, nomadism, and the advantage that a product may yield to either sex. Hypotheses are widely supported.

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  6. There is an association between moral gods and social complexity (227).Whitehouse, Harvey - RETRACTED: Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers tackle the moral gods hypothesis which proposes that moral gods enabled large-scale societies to evolve. They use 414 societies spanning 10,000 years in Seshat: Global History Databank and code 51 measures of social complexity and four measures of moral gods. The findings of the present study challenge the moral gods hypothesis. In the societies studied, complex societies appear to precede moral gods rather than the inverse of moral gods preceding complex societies.

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  7. Contrary to the Moral High Gods hypothesis, complex societies precede moralizing gods (227).Whitehouse, Harvey - RETRACTED: Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers tackle the moral gods hypothesis which proposes that moral gods enabled large-scale societies to evolve. They use 414 societies spanning 10,000 years in Seshat: Global History Databank and code 51 measures of social complexity and four measures of moral gods. The findings of the present study challenge the moral gods hypothesis. In the societies studied, complex societies appear to precede moral gods rather than the inverse of moral gods preceding complex societies.

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  8. Contrary to the Moral Gods Hypothesis, complex societies precede broad supernatural punishment of moral transgressions (227).Whitehouse, Harvey - RETRACTED: Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history, 2019 - 2 Variables

    Researchers tackle the moral gods hypothesis which proposes that moral gods enabled large-scale societies to evolve. They use 414 societies spanning 10,000 years in Seshat: Global History Databank and code 51 measures of social complexity and four measures of moral gods. The findings of the present study challenge the moral gods hypothesis. In the societies studied, complex societies appear to precede moral gods rather than the inverse of moral gods preceding complex societies.

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  9. A factor analysis of sex participation in subsistence activities yielded 2 especially significant factors. Factor 1, "processing of animal products", loaded heavily and positively on manufacture of leather products, preparation of skins, making of clothing (214)Murdock, George Peter - Factors in the division of labor by sex: a cross-cultural analysis, 1973 - 4 Variables

    This article investigates factors influencing the division of labor by gender, including occupation specialization, the type of material labor involves, the presence of the plow, nomadism, and the advantage that a product may yield to either sex. Hypotheses are widely supported.

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  10. ". . . the greater the number of sovereign groups in excess of two, the more likely the high god will be active and even concerned with human morality" (78)Swanson, Guy E. - The birth of the gods; the origin of primitive beliefs, 1960 - 2 Variables

    This book investigates the origins of supernatural and religious beliefs. The author tests associations between various types of beliefs (e.g. witchcraft, monotheism) and various societal characteristics (e.g. mobility, class stratification). Many hypotheses are supported. Theoretical discussion is included, and the author posits that “the belief in a particular kind of spirit springs from experiences with a type of persisting sovereign group whose area of jurisdiction corresponds to that attributed to the spirit” (175).

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