Cultures Covered

eHRAF World Cultures- an online ethnographic database

eHRAF World Cultures- a unique online ethnographic database.

In the eHRAF World Cultures database the cultures and ethnic groups included are organized by regions (e.g. North America), subregions (e.g. Southwest) and subsistence types (e.g. hunter-gatherers).  Every year 20-30 cultures with approximately 40,000 pages are added to eHRAF World Cultures. About 25% is new ethnographic material and the remaining material is converted from HRAF’s previous microfiche collection for the cultures added to eHRAF.

In eHRAF World Cultures all collected, analyzed and indexed ethnographic documents for a culture can be found in the Browse Cultures section (Collection Documents tab).  The ethnographic documents can also be searched using Basic and/or Advanced Search.

The following list shows all of the 295 culture names covered in the eHRAF World Cultures database. Below the table you can find links to PDF and Excel Files that include additional useful information, not displayed in the table.

SEQREGIONSUBREGIONCULTUREOWCSUBSISTENCE TYPE
1AfricaSouthern AfricaLoziFQ09other subsistence combinations
2OceaniaPolynesiaTikopiaOT11horticulturalists
3AfricaNorthern AfricaShluhMW11intensive agriculturalists
4Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaTzeltalNV09horticulturalists
5AfricaCentral AfricaMbutiFO04hunter-gatherers
6AsiaSouth AsiaAndamansAZ02hunter-gatherers
7North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesChinese AmericansNK06commercial economy
8North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesChinese CanadiansNC04commercial economy
9South AmericaCentral AndesAymaraSF05horticulturalists
10EuropeBritish IslesHighland ScotsES10other subsistence combinations
11South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoYanoamaSQ18horticulturalists
12North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesCajunsNO12other subsistence combinations
13AsiaSoutheast AsiaIbanOC06horticulturalists
14OceaniaMelanesiaTrobriandsOL06horticulturalists
15AsiaEast AsiaTaiwan HokkienAD05intensive agriculturalists
16OceaniaAustraliaArandaOI08hunter-gatherers
17AsiaNorth AsiaChukcheeRY02pastoralists
18South AmericaSouthern South AmericaOnaSH04hunter-gatherers
19Middle EastMiddle EastKurdsMA11pastoralists
20AsiaSouth AsiaKhasiAR07other subsistence combinations
21AfricaEastern AfricaMaasaiFL12pastoralists
22South AmericaEastern South AmericaBororoSP08hunter-gatherers
23North AmericaEastern WoodlandsIroquoisNM09horticulturalists
24EuropeScandinaviaSaamiEP04pastoralists
25North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesNorth American Hasidic JewsN011commercial economy
26North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesNorth American ArmeniansN016commercial economy
27North AmericaArctic and SubarcticCopper InuitND08hunter-gatherers
28OceaniaPolynesiaLau FijiansOQ06other subsistence combinations
29AsiaSoutheast AsiaEastern TorajaOG11horticulturalists
30AfricaSouthern AfricaBembaFQ05horticulturalists
31EuropeSoutheastern EuropeMontenegrinsEF05agro-pastoralists
32North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaTlingitNA12hunter-gatherers
33EuropeSoutheastern EuropeSlovenesEF07intensive agriculturalists
34AsiaSoutheast AsiaSouthern TorajaOG13intensive agriculturalists
35AsiaSouth AsiaSinhaleseAX04intensive agriculturalists
36South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaKogiSC07horticulturalists
37AfricaWestern AfricaHausaMS12other subsistence combinations
38Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoTarahumaraNU33agro-pastoralists
39AfricaEastern AfricaSomaliMO04pastoralists
40North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesBasque AmericansN018pastoralists
41North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesKorean AmericansN019commercial economy
42South AmericaSouthern South AmericaMatacoSI07primarily hunter-gatherers
43EuropeSoutheastern EuropeSerbsEF06intensive agriculturalists
44EuropeSoutheastern EuropeCroatsEF04commercial economy
45North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesSerbian AmericansN017commercial economy
46AsiaNorth AsiaYakutRV02other subsistence combinations
47EuropeSoutheastern EuropeBosnian MuslimsEF09commercial economy
48North AmericaPlains and PlateauPawneeNQ18primarily hunter-gatherers
49AfricaWestern AfricaKanuriMS14intensive agriculturalists
50AfricaEastern AfricaAmharaMP05intensive agriculturalists
51AfricaWestern AfricaTivFF57horticulturalists
52AsiaSouth AsiaSantalAW42intensive agriculturalists
53AfricaEastern AfricaGandaFK07intensive agriculturalists
54North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesCuban AmericansNK08commercial economy
55AsiaEast AsiaKoreaAA01intensive agriculturalists
56North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesHaitian AmericansNK07commercial economy
57North AmericaPlains and PlateauKlamathNR10hunter-gatherers
58OceaniaMelanesiaKapaukuOJ29intensive agriculturalists
59South AmericaEastern South AmericaGuaraníSM04other subsistence combinations
60South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoTukanoSQ19other subsistence combinations
61AfricaCentral AfricaAzandeFO07horticulturalists
62North AmericaPlains and PlateauBlackfootNF06hunter-gatherers
63North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesArab CanadiansNC05commercial economy
64AsiaSouth AsiaGaroAR05horticulturalists
65South AmericaEastern South AmericaBahia BraziliansSO11intensive agriculturalists
66Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaKunaSB05horticulturalists
67North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesArab AmericansNK09commercial economy
68AfricaWestern AfricaWolofMS30horticulturalists
69AfricaNorthern AfricaLibyan BedouinMT09pastoralists
70AsiaSoutheast AsiaIfugaoOA19intensive agriculturalists
71OceaniaMicronesiaChuukOR19other subsistence combinations
72South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoNdyukaSR14horticulturalists
73South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoSaramakaSR15other subsistence combinations
74AfricaWestern AfricaAkanFE12horticulturalists
75North AmericaArctic and SubarcticOjibwaNG06hunter-gatherers
76AfricaWestern AfricaDogonFA16intensive agriculturalists
77AsiaSoutheast AsiaCentral ThaiAO07intensive agriculturalists
78North AmericaSouthwest and BasinHopiNT09intensive agriculturalists
79AfricaSouthern AfricaLakeshore TongaFR07other subsistence combinations
80North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaPomoNS18hunter-gatherers
81North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesItalian CanadiansNC06commercial economy
82North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesNorth American HmongN009commercial economy
83North AmericaArctic and SubarcticChipewyansND07hunter-gatherers
84AsiaEast AsiaOkinawansAC07intensive agriculturalists
85EuropeSouthern EuropeBasquesEX08other subsistence combinations
86North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesItalian AmericansN010commercial economy
87North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaQuinaultNR17hunter-gatherers
88Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaMaya (Yucatán Peninsula)NV10horticulturalists
89AsiaSoutheast AsiaMentawaiansOD09horticulturalists
90South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoWaraoSS18hunter-gatherers
91North AmericaPlains and PlateauAssiniboineNF04hunter-gatherers
92OceaniaMelanesiaMalekulaOO12horticulturalists
93AfricaEastern AfricaNuerFJ22agro-pastoralists
94North AmericaPlains and PlateauStoneyNF12hunter-gatherers
95North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYokutsNS29hunter-gatherers
96North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesPuerto Ricans (Mainland)NK05commercial economy
97South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoShipiboSE26horticulturalists
98AsiaCentral AsiaPashtunAU04other subsistence combinations
99AsiaSouth AsiaBaluchiAT02pastoralists
100AsiaSoutheast AsiaRungus DusunOC13horticulturalists
101AfricaSouthern AfricaOvimbunduFP13horticulturalists
102North AmericaSouthwest and BasinWestern ApacheNT21primarily hunter-gatherers
103North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesChicanosN007commercial economy
104AsiaCentral AsiaHazaraAU05intensive agriculturalists
105AsiaCentral AsiaGhorbatAU07commercial economy
106AsiaSouth AsiaBengaliAW69intensive agriculturalists
107AsiaCentral AsiaTurkmensRM02agro-pastoralists
108AsiaCentral AsiaKarakalpakRN02intensive agriculturalists
109AsiaCentral AsiaUzbeksRN05not assigned
110AsiaCentral AsiaTajiksRO02not assigned
111AsiaCentral AsiaPamir PeoplesRO03agro-pastoralists
112AsiaCentral AsiaKyrgyzRP02pastoralists
113South AmericaEastern South AmericaTupinambaSO09primarily hunter-gatherers
114South AmericaSouthern South AmericaYahganSH06hunter-gatherers
115AsiaSoutheast AsiaAloreseOF05horticulturalists
116AsiaCentral AsiaLepchaAK05intensive agriculturalists
117OceaniaMelanesiaSanta Cruz IslandersON13horticulturalists
118AfricaEastern AfricaBenaFN31horticulturalists
119AfricaEastern AfricaBanyoroFK11horticulturalists
120South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoMundurucuSQ13primarily hunter-gatherers
121EuropeSoutheastern EuropeGreeksEH01intensive agriculturalists
122Middle EastMiddle EastYemenisML01not assigned
123AfricaWestern AfricaIgboFF26horticulturalists
124AsiaNorth AsiaKoryaksRY04primarily hunter-gatherers
125OceaniaPolynesiaHawaiiansOV05other subsistence combinations
126Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoHuicholNU19other subsistence combinations
127AfricaSouthern AfricaBetsileoFY11intensive agriculturalists
128North AmericaEastern WoodlandsDelawareNM07primarily hunter-gatherers
129North AmericaEastern WoodlandsSeminoleNN16horticulturalists
130North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYukiNS30hunter-gatherers
131Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanDominicansST04not assigned
132Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanCubansSX01not assigned
133Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanJamaicansSY01not assigned
134EuropeScandinaviaEarly IcelandersEQ02other subsistence combinations
135North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaChinookans of the Lower Columbia RiverNR06hunter-gatherers
136North AmericaSouthwest and BasinZia PuebloNT38intensive agriculturalists
137North AmericaSouthwest and BasinNavajoNT13agro-pastoralists
138AfricaEastern AfricaBagisuFK13horticulturalists
139OceaniaMelanesiaOrokaivaOJ23other subsistence combinations
140EuropeScandinaviaIcelandersEQ01other subsistence combinations
141AsiaCentral AsiaSherpaAK06agro-pastoralists
142South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoBakairiSP07other subsistence combinations
143South AmericaCentral AndesInkaSE13intensive agriculturalists
144AsiaEast AsiaMonguorAE09intensive agriculturalists
145AsiaSouth AsiaBadagaAW50intensive agriculturalists
146Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanIsland CaribST13primarily hunter-gatherers
147OceaniaMelanesiaManusOM06hunter-gatherers
148AfricaSouthern AfricaSanFX10hunter-gatherers
149AfricaSouthern AfricaZuluFX20agro-pastoralists
150Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaGarifunaSA12horticulturalists
151North AmericaArctic and SubarcticAlutiiqNA10hunter-gatherers
152Middle EastMiddle EastPalestiniansM013commercial economy
153Middle EastMiddle EastIsraelisMF01commercial economy
154North AmericaArctic and SubarcticAleutNA06hunter-gatherers
155OceaniaMicronesiaYapeseOR22other subsistence combinations
156North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesSea IslandersNN23commercial economy
157South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoJivaroSD09horticulturalists
158Middle EastMiddle EastLurMA12agro-pastoralists
159AsiaCentral AsiaInner MongoliaAH06agro-pastoralists
160AsiaCentral AsiaMongoliaAH01pastoralists
161AfricaEastern AfricaGusiiFL08horticulturalists
162OceaniaPolynesiaTongansOU09horticulturalists
163Middle EastMiddle EastIranMA01intensive agriculturalists
164South AmericaSouthern South AmericaTehuelcheSH05hunter-gatherers
165OceaniaMicronesiaWoleai RegionOR21other subsistence combinations
166AfricaWestern AfricaBambaraFA08other subsistence combinations
167North AmericaPlains and PlateauComancheNO06hunter-gatherers
168AsiaSouth AsiaBurushoAV07intensive agriculturalists
169North AmericaSouthwest and BasinUteNT19hunter-gatherers
170North AmericaEastern WoodlandsCherokeeNN08other subsistence combinations
171AsiaSoutheast AsiaVietnameseAM11intensive agriculturalists
172AsiaSoutheast AsiaSemangAN07hunter-gatherers
173EuropeSouthern EuropeImperial RomansEI09intensive agriculturalists
174Middle EastMiddle EastBasseriMA10pastoralists
175North AmericaArctic and SubarcticWestern Woods CreeNG08hunter-gatherers
176OceaniaMicronesiaUlithiOR20other subsistence combinations
177South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoSirionóSF21hunter-gatherers
178AfricaSouthern AfricaTanalaFY08intensive agriculturalists
179OceaniaAustraliaTiwiOI20hunter-gatherers
180AfricaWestern AfricaMossiFA28intensive agriculturalists
181North AmericaArctic and SubarcticInnuNH06hunter-gatherers
182South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoBarama River CaribSR09primarily hunter-gatherers
183Middle EastMiddle EastRwala BedouinMD04pastoralists
184AsiaSouth AsiaVeddaAX05hunter-gatherers
185AsiaCaucasusAbkhaziansRI03agro-pastoralists
186OceaniaPolynesiaSamoansOU08horticulturalists
187AsiaSouth AsiaTamilAW16intensive agriculturalists
188AfricaWestern AfricaYorubaFF62horticulturalists
189AfricaWestern AfricaKpelleFD06horticulturalists
190North AmericaSouthwest and BasinZuniNT23intensive agriculturalists
191AsiaEast AsiaMiaoAE05intensive agriculturalists
192Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoZapotecNU44horticulturalists
193South AmericaCentral AndesMapucheSG04intensive agriculturalists
194North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesAmishNM06intensive agriculturalists
195OceaniaPolynesiaMaoriOZ04primarily hunter-gatherers
196Middle EastMiddle EastBedouinMJ04pastoralists
197AsiaEast AsiaAinuAB06hunter-gatherers
198AfricaCentral AfricaRwandansFO57agro-pastoralists
199North AmericaEastern WoodlandsCreekNN11primarily hunter-gatherers
200South AmericaSouthern South AmericaAbipónSI04hunter-gatherers
201AfricaEastern AfricaShillukFJ23agro-pastoralists
202AfricaSouthern AfricaKhoiFX13other subsistence combinations
203AsiaNorth AsiaNivkhRX02primarily hunter-gatherers
204South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoTicunaSQ20primarily hunter-gatherers
205OceaniaMelanesiaKwomaOJ13other subsistence combinations
206North AmericaEastern WoodlandsWinnebago/Ho-ChunkNP12primarily hunter-gatherers
207AsiaCentral AsiaTibetansAJ01intensive agriculturalists
208AfricaEastern AfricaGikuyuFL10intensive agriculturalists
209North AmericaSouthwest and BasinTewa PueblosNT18intensive agriculturalists
210South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoNambicuaraSP17primarily hunter-gatherers
211AfricaWestern AfricaMendeFC07horticulturalists
212AfricaCentral AfricaMongoFO32horticulturalists
213AfricaWestern AfricaTallensiFE11intensive agriculturalists
214AsiaSoutheast AsiaBalineseOF07intensive agriculturalists
215South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoTrumaiSP23primarily hunter-gatherers
216South AmericaEastern South AmericaTapirapéSP22other subsistence combinations
217AfricaNorthern AfricaTuaregMS25agro-pastoralists
218Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaMam MayaNW08horticulturalists
219North AmericaSouthwest and BasinMescalero ApacheNT25hunter-gatherers
220AsiaSoutheast AsiaJavaneseOE05intensive agriculturalists
221South AmericaCentral AndesQuito QuichuaSD15agro-pastoralists
222North AmericaRegional and Ethnic CulturesAfrican AmericansNK04commercial economy
223Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoNahuaNU46other subsistence combinations
224South AmericaCentral AndesOtavalo QuichuaSD16horticulturalists
225South AmericaCentral AndesSaraguro QuichuaSD17agro-pastoralists
226AsiaSouth AsiaBhilAW25agro-pastoralists
227AsiaSouth AsiaTodaAW60pastoralists
228AfricaCentral AfricaBarundiFO58horticulturalists
229South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoCanelos QuichuaSD18horticulturalists
230North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYurokNS31hunter-gatherers
231Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaMiskitoSA15primarily hunter-gatherers
232AsiaCentral AsiaKazakhRQ02pastoralists
233OceaniaMicronesiaMarshalleseOR11other subsistence combinations
234AfricaNorthern AfricaFellahinMR13intensive agriculturalists
235AsiaSouth AsiaUttar PradeshAW19intensive agriculturalists
236AfricaEastern AfricaNyakyusa and NgondeFN17intensive agriculturalists
237OceaniaPolynesiaMarquesasOX06other subsistence combinations
238North AmericaSouthwest and BasinHavasupaiNT14other subsistence combinations
239AsiaEast AsiaOkayamaAB43intensive agriculturalists
240OceaniaMicronesiaBelauOR15other subsistence combinations
241North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaNuu-chah-nulthNE11hunter-gatherers
242North AmericaSouthwest and BasinO'odhamNU79other subsistence combinations
243AfricaSouthern AfricaTsongaFT06other subsistence combinations
244North AmericaEastern WoodlandsMi'kmaqNJ05hunter-gatherers
245AfricaNorthern AfricaBerbers of MoroccoMX03agro-pastoralists
246AsiaEast AsiaYiAE04intensive agriculturalists
247AsiaSoutheast AsiaMalaysAN05intensive agriculturalists
248North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaNuxalkNE06hunter-gatherers
249AfricaEastern AfricaLuoFL11intensive agriculturalists
250North AmericaPlains and PlateauOsageNQ22primarily hunter-gatherers
251North AmericaPlains and PlateauOmahaNQ21primarily hunter-gatherers
252AfricaCentral AfricaTedaMS22agro-pastoralists
253AfricaEastern AfricaChaggaFN04intensive agriculturalists
254AfricaEastern AfricaTurkanaFL17pastoralists
255AsiaSouth AsiaGondAW32other subsistence combinations
256South AmericaSouthern South AmericaTerenaSM05primarily hunter-gatherers
257EuropeBritish IslesBritish (1714-1815)ES03intensive agriculturalists
258Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanPuerto Ricans (Island)SU01commercial economy
259OceaniaMelanesiaLesuOM24other subsistence combinations
260North AmericaSouthwest and BasinEastern ApacheNT08hunter-gatherers
261North AmericaArctic and SubarcticKaskaND12hunter-gatherers
262Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral AmericaTalamancansSA19other subsistence combinations
263North AmericaSouthwest and BasinNorthern PaiuteNR13hunter-gatherers
264Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanHaitiansSV03commercial economy
265South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaGoajiroSC13pastoralists
266AsiaEast AsiaManchuAG04intensive agriculturalists
267AsiaNorth AsiaSamoyedRU04primarily hunter-gatherers
268South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaChachiSD06other subsistence combinations
269Middle EastMiddle EastTurksMB01commercial economy
270North AmericaPlains and PlateauGros VentreNQ13hunter-gatherers
271EuropeSoutheastern EuropeAlbaniansEG01intensive agriculturalists
272AsiaSoutheast AsiaCambodiansAM04intensive agriculturalists
273AsiaSoutheast AsiaSemaiAN06horticulturalists
274AsiaSoutheast AsiaBurmansAP04intensive agriculturalists
275AsiaSoutheast AsiaKachinAP06horticulturalists
276AsiaSoutheast AsiaKarenAP07other subsistence combinations
277AfricaEastern AfricaKaffaMP14intensive agriculturalists
278AsiaNorth AsiaNenetsRU41primarily hunter-gatherers
279South AmericaEastern South AmericaXoklengSM03hunter-gatherers
280South AmericaEastern South AmericaCanelaSO08primarily hunter-gatherers
281OceaniaMelanesiaTinputzON26other subsistence combinations
282OceaniaMelanesiaWogeoOJ27other subsistence combinations
283AfricaSouthern AfricaIlaFQ06horticulturalists
284South AmericaCentral AndesUru-ChipayaSF24other subsistence combinations
285AfricaWestern AfricaKatabFF38other subsistence combinations
286North AmericaSouthwest and BasinMaricopaNT43primarily hunter-gatherers
287AfricaWestern AfricaNupeFF52horticulturalists
288North AmericaEastern WoodlandsFoxNP05other subsistence combinations
289AfricaEastern AfricaOkiekFL20hunter-gatherers
290AfricaSouthern AfricaShonaFS05other subsistence combinations
291OceaniaMelanesiaNortheastern MassimOL07other subsistence combinations
292AsiaSouth AsiaKolAW37intensive agriculturalists
293AfricaSouthern AfricaTongaFQ12horticulturalists
294North AmericaPlains and PlateauCrowNQ10hunter-gatherers
295South AmericaAmazon and OrinocoPuméSS19other subsistence combinations
SEQREGIONSUBREGIONCULTUREOWCSUBSISTENCE TYPE

 

Related Links

Topics and Cultures in eHRAF: This printable PDF document provides an overview of all the topics on cultural and social life, and all cultures, past and present, currently covered in HRAF’s cross-cultural online databases. It serves as handy reference or handout for librarians and faculty to familiarize themselves and their students with the type of the ethnic groups, western and non-western cultures, indigenous people, and Native North Americans currently covered in eHRAF World Cultures.

Excel format: A comprehensive list of the 295 culture names currently included in the eHRAF World Cultures database.  The excel format also includes sequence and installment numbers, OWC codes, region coverage (including subregions), date coverage (beginning and ending dates for cultural materials), subsistence and sample (PSF and SRS) types.  Some fields with no information available are left blank. This list in excel format is versatile because you can sort the tables to your needs and add or delete any columns you like.  The sequence numbers for each culture name make the excel table  useful for generating a random sample from eHRAF.  Visit the Cross-Cultural Research section to learn more about random sampling.

Subsistence Types in eHRAF: Classification of subsistence types in eHRAF and how to refine a search by subsistence type in eHRAF.

User Support, Services & Guides: The eHRAF World Cultures and eHRAF Archaeology databases are powerful research and teaching tools. To better understand what eHRAF is and how it is used, we provide several different guides and support options.
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