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  1. Socio-cultural values are risk factors for COVID-19-related mortalityEndress, Ansgar D. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2022 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper proposes that the socio-cultural values of countries may be associated with increased mortality due to COVID-19. Using results from the World Values survey, the author assessed which values had the strongest association with a change in COVID-19 mortality in datasets consisting of all countries, upper-middle and high income economies, upper-middle income economies, high income economies, and advanced economies. The author also sought to determine whether the WVS values that were associated with COVID-19 mortality were also associated with general life expectancy. The results showed that COVID-19 mortality was increased in countries that placed a higher value on freedom of speech, political participation, religion, technocracy, post-materialism, social tolerance, law and order, and acceptance of authority. On the other hand, mortality was decreased in countries with high trust in major companies and institutions and that endorsed maintenance of order as a goal for a country. The author also found that values related to COVID-19 mortality did not predict general health outcomes, and that some values that predicted increased COVID-19 mortality actually predicted decreased mortality from other outcomes.

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  2. Societies within peace systems avoid war and build positive intergroup relationshipsFry, Douglas P. - Humanities & Social Sciences Communications, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors explore cultural variables that they propose contribute to the maintenance of peace in non-warring societies. These variables are compared in 16 peaceful systems (as coded by the authors from anthropological and historical data) and in 30 warring societies taken from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). Findings associate more peaceful cultures with peace systems, and non-peaceful cultures with warring societies.

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  3. Ascertaining, testing, and interpreting sequences of cultural developmentCarneiro, Robert L. - Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 1968 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study takes an evolutionary approach to understanding cultural development. The author suggests that "the degree of regularity in the relative order of development of any two traits is directly proportional to the evolutionary distance between them." Scale analysis supports this proposition.

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  4. Cultural evolution and conflict resolutionShiels, Dean - Wisconsin Sociologist, 1986 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines why conflict emerges and how societies resolve it. The authors posit that increasing societal scale and differentiation create more potential for conflict but also more complex forms of conflict resolution. Analysis supports this theory, showing that measures of cultural complexity are positively associated with legal mechanisms for conflict resolution.

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  5. Rice farming, culture and democracyAng, James B. - European Economic Review, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors propose that societies with a tradition of rice farming are less likely to develop a democracy than societies with a tradition of wheat farming. They base their predictions on the theory that wheat farming, as opposed to rice farming, does not require extensive community collaboration and promotes individualism, which then in turn promotes democracy. Their findings were robustly consistent with their predictions. The authors used multiple controls in their analyses, including religion, economic development, geography, and local democratic practices.

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  6. Cross-Cultural Invariances in the Architecture of ShameSznycer, Daniel - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study looks at the possibility of a universal system of social valuation by examining the correlation between shame and devaluation. Researchers conducted an experiment among 899 participants from 15 communities of high cultural variation in order to test if similar relationships between shame and devaluation exist independently of cultural contact or cultural evolution. The findings reveal that shame and devaluation are closely linked both between individuals and members of a local audience, as well as cross-culturally.

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  7. Culture and National well-being: should societies emphasize freedom or constraint?Harrington, Jesse R. - PLoS ONE, 2015 - 9 Hypotheses

    The purpose of the present study is to provide insight on the debate concerning how best to organize societies: with more freedom (looseness) or with more constraint (tightness). In a comparison of 32 nations, Harrington, Boski, and Gelfand examine the relationship between tightness/looseness and three dimensions of societal well-being: psychosocial, health, and political/economic outcomes. Findings indicate that excessive constraint and/or freedom contribute to poorer psychosocial, health, and economic/political outcomes, as well as overall national-level well-being. These results suggest that a balance of freedom and constraint is associated with optimal societal well-being.

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  8. How competition is viewed across cultures: a test of four theoriesHayward, R. David - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study draws upon theory from Marx, Weber, postmaterialism, individualism and system justification to explore cultural attitudes and beliefs surroudning competition. Authors test relationships between the attitudes towards competition and economic and religious variables.

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  9. Invariances in the architecture of pride across small-scale societiesSznycer, Daniel - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using experimental methods, these researchers evaluated the function of pride in ten small-scale societies by testing personal pride’s association with valuation by the surrounding community. Their aim was to see if findings from western(-ized), educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) societies replicate in non-WEIRD societies. Simple linear regression in each society indicates that the amount of pride one feels for a given action closely matches how highly others in the same community value the action. Authors conclude support for the universality of the pride system.

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  10. Naming and identity: a cross-cultural study of personal naming practicesAlford, Richard - , 1987 - 14 Hypotheses

    This book examines naming practices cross-culturally. The author posits that naming practices help to both reflect and create conceptions of personal identity. Several correlations between name meanings and practices and various sociocultural variables are presented.

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