Found 1768 Hypotheses across 177 Pages (0.067 seconds)
  1. "Games of chance occur where . . . outcome . . . in the life situation [is] uncertain, not easily controlled by either physical skill or strategy in areas of environmental setting, food production, social and political interaction, marriage, war and religion" (143)Roberts, John M. - Cross-cultural correlates of games of chance, 1966 - 6 Variables

    Authors investigate the cross-cultural correlates of games of chance. They advance a "conflict-enculturation" model to explain why individuals choose to engage in games of chance in particular (as opposed to games of strategy or physical skill). They suggest that games of chance are linked to cultures with antecedent conflict and/or feelings of powerlessness in the presence of uncertainty; both are psychological stressors whose effects may be assuaged by play with uncertainty models in the form of games of chance.

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  2. The presence of horses, food storage, and formal resource ownership will each be negatively associated with a lack of class stratificationHooper, Paul L. - Gains to cooperation drive the evolution of egalitarianism, 2021 - 4 Variables

    This article is mainly concerned with understanding the motivators toward egalitarianism through modeling via a game that combined elements from both hawk-dove and prisoners dilemma. While most of the article is focused on this model, the researchers also tested their hypotheses cross-culturally on a sample of forager societies. In both cases, they found evidence that the benefits of cooperation drove egalitarianism.

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  3. Certain characteristics of societies will be significantly correlated in the same direction with both Simmons' (137) and Murdock's (1967) measures of private property ownership.Rudmin, Floyd Webster - Cross-Cultural Correlates of the Ownership of Private Property, 1992 - 25 Variables

    The present study aims to assess the reliability of Simmons' (1937) database of 109 variables coded for 71 societies. Simmons' data was evaluated against matching societies and variables from Murdock's (1967) Ethnographic Atlas. The ultimate purpose of Rudmin's analysis is to identify the features of societies that are correlated with the private ownership of property. To do so, Simmons' reliable variables are tested against four measures of property ownership, two from Simmons and two from Murdock. Rudmin discusses results and speculates why certain clusters of societal variables correlate with private property ownership.

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  4. "Societies with sex differences [in drinking] tend to have a nomadic or rural settlement pattern, economy based on hunting, less accumulation of food resources, stronger child training toward achievement and more punishment of child for failure to achieve" (59)Child, Irvin L. - A cross-cultural study of drinking: iii. sex differences, 1965 - 6 Variables

    This study examines sex differences in alcohol consumption, suggesting that they are related to a nomadic or rural settlement, low accumulation of food resources, and strong child training pressure toward achievement. The authors suggest that societal norms often limit drunkenness in women because women's responsibilities (such as childcare) would deter incapacity due to intoxication.

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  5. Population pressure will be positively associated with socioeconomic complexity in hunter-gatherer groups (376).Keeley, Lawrence H. - Hunter-gatherer economic complexity and “population pressure”: A cross-cultu..., 1988 - 2 Variables

    This study examines the relationship between population pressure and socioeconomic complexity in a cross-cultural sample of hunter-gatherer groups. The author suggests a causal component to the positive correlations found, arguing that increasing population pressure on food resources requires increasing storage dependence, which in turn drives sedentism and other indicators of socioeconomic complexity.

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  6. Presence of hierarchy is positively associated with technology, population density and storage (236).Baker, Matthew - The origins of governments: from anarchy to hierarchy, 2010 - 4 Variables

    This study develops a model of the conditions under which a societies switch from a anarchy to a hierarchy. Empirical results suggest that the presence of police, technological sophistication, population density, and food storage are positively associated with the presence of a territorial hierarchy.

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  7. Certain characteristics of societies will be significantly correlated in the same direction in both of Murdock's data sets.Rudmin, Floyd Webster - Cross-Cultural Correlates of the Ownership of Private Property: Two Samples ..., 1995 - 55 Variables

    The present study aims to evaluate correlations of private property from two of Murdock's datasets, one of 147 societies (1981) and the other of 312 societies (1967). Altogether the author tested 146 variables coded by Murdock against variables regarding the ownership of land and of movables drawn from Murdock (1967), Simmons (1937), and Swanson (1960). In total, there were 51 statistically significant correlations between private property ownership and other variables. Additionally, the author summarizes the results from this article and the two that preceded it stating that throughout all of the correlations he ran, the practice of agriculture, the use of cereal grains, and the presence of castes and classes were the only variables that predicted private property in all of the datasets that were utilized.

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  8. "There was also a relationship between geographical location and the number of games of physical skill in a society. . . . Tribes living within 20 degrees latitude of the equator [tend to have] fewer than 5 games of physical skill" (604)Roberts, John M. - Games in culture, 1959 - 2 Variables

    This article examines the relationships between game types (physical, strategy, and chance) and social, religious, and geographic variables. Hypotheses are supported.

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  9. Games of chance will be related to games of physical skill (195-196).Chick, Garry - Games in culture revisited: a replication and extension of roberts, arth, an..., 1998 - 2 Variables

    This study replicates the study of games conducted by Roberts, Arth and Bush (1959) using new data. Findings support the results of the original study, suggesting that games of strategy are related to social complexity and games of chance are related to games of physical skill.

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  10. Patterns of food storage and trade will be related to rainfall predictability (238).Low, Bobbi S. - Human responses to environmental extremeness and uncertainty: a cross-cultur..., 1988 - 2 Variables

    This article focuses on the effect of environmental extremes and unpredictability on human behavior and reproductive strategies. Significant correlations were found between environmental extremes and unpredictability and several variables, including mobility, subsistence mode, and degree of polygyny.

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