Traditions Covered

In the online eHRAF Archaeology database the mostly prehistoric cultures included are organized by regions (e.g. North America), subregions (e.g. Southwest) and subsistence types (e.g. hunter-gatherers). Every year, five archaeological traditions with approximately 10,000 pages are added to eHRAF Archaeology.

The table below gives an overview of the types of traditions currently included in eHRAF Archaeology and can be sorted by the following functions: culture name, region, subregions, subsistence and sample types.

Download a PDF list of all traditions in eHRAF Archaeology here.

All collected, analyzed and indexed archaeological documents (e.g., books, journal articles, monographs) for a prehistoric culture can be found in the Collection Documents tab in the Browse Traditions section of the eHRAF Archaeology database. The archaeological documents are also searchable in the eHRAF Basic or Advanced Search.

Information about how subsistence types are classified for the cultures in the eHRAF Archaeology database scroll down to the bottom of the page.

OWC CodeTradition NameRegionSubregionSRSBegin Date BPEnd Date BPDocsSubsistence Type
AB80YayoiAsiaEast AsiaYes2500150029intensive agriculturalists
AF40North China Upper PaleolithicAsiaEast Asia1hunter-gatherers
AF40North China Upper PaleolithicAsiaEast Asia40000850023hunter-gatherers
AF45Yellow River Early NeolithicAsiaEast Asia8500620019hunter-gatherers to food producers
AF48Middle-Upper Yellow River Middle NeolithicAsiaEast Asia7000500013horticulturalists
AF50DawenkouAsiaEast AsiaYes630045007horticulturalists
AF70Southeast China Early NeolithicAsiaEast AsiaYes9000550014primarily hunter-gatherers
AJ50Eastern Central Asia Neolithic and Bronze AgeAsiaCentral AsiaYes600015006agro-pastoralists
AQ30South Asian Upper PaleolithicAsiaSoutheast Asia40000700013hunter-gatherers
AQ40Indus NeolithicAsiaSouth AsiaYes900068009hunter-gatherers to food producers
AQ43Early IndusAsiaSouth Asia7500460024intensive agriculturalists
AQ45Mature IndusAsiaSouth Asia4600390030intensive agriculturalists
AQ47VedicAsiaSouth Asia390025009intensive agriculturalists
AQ47VedicAsiaSouth Asia1intensive agriculturalists
AQ50Ganges NeolithicAsiaSouth AsiaYes4000250010other subsistence combinations
AQ63Central Indian NeolithicAsiaSouth AsiaYes5000310014other subsistence combinations
AQ73South Indian ChalcolithicAsiaSouth Asia4500270021other subsistence combinations
E050Bell BeakerEuropeGeneral EuropeYes450038009intensive agriculturalists
E051Impressed WareEuropeGeneral EuropeYes6800600038primarily hunter-gatherers
E065Northeastern European Bronze AgeEuropeEastern Europe390027507other subsistence combinations
E075Southeastern Europe Late ChalcolithicEuropeSoutheastern EuropeYes5500450038agro-pastoralists
E087Scandinavian Iron AgeEuropeScandinaviaYes2500150020other subsistence combinations
FA75West African Iron AgeAfricaWestern AfricaYes2500120017other subsistence combinations
FX50WiltonAfricaSouthern AfricaYes1000020006hunter-gatherers
M050Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene MaghrebAfricaNorthern AfricaYes20000750013hunter-gatherers
M080EpipaleolithicMiddle EastMiddle East400001050055hunter-gatherers
M084Aceramic NeolithicMiddle EastMiddle East10500750025hunter-gatherers to food producers
M086HalafianMiddle EastMiddle EastYes7500700024agro-pastoralists
M087Ceramic NeolithicMiddle EastMiddle East8000610032horticulturalists
MA50Iranian Bronze AgeMiddle EastMiddle EastYes500035007agro-pastoralists
MA51Scythian-SarmatianAsiaCentral AsiaYes400017006pastoralists
MH55UbaidMiddle EastMiddle East7500600034agro-pastoralists
MH60Late Chalcolithic MesopotamiaMiddle EastMiddle East6000510031agro-pastoralists
MH62Jemdet NasrMiddle EastMiddle East5100490017agro-pastoralists
MH64Early Dynastic MesopotamiaMiddle EastMiddle EastYes4900433412agro-pastoralists
MH66AkkadianMiddle EastMiddle EastYes4334411248agro-pastoralists
MR45Middle Paleolithic EgyptAfricaNorthern AfricaYes230000450008hunter-gatherers
MR50Late Paleolithic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africa45000700020hunter-gatherers
MR55Upper Egypt PredynasticAfricaNorthern Africa7000500025intensive agriculturalists
MR60Lower Egypt PredynasticAfricaNorthern Africa7000500021intensive agriculturalists
MR70Early Dynastic EgyptAfricaNorthern Africa5000457554intensive agriculturalists
MR80Protohistoric EgyptAfricaNorthern Africa457535529intensive agriculturalists
MS50Khartoum NeolithicAfricaNorthern AfricaYes570035505other subsistence combinations
N037Late Paleo-IndianNorth AmericaGeneral North AmericaYes11000600064hunter-gatherers
N050Eastern Arctic Small ToolNorth AmericaGeneral North AmericaYes4000270027hunter-gatherers
NA45Late TundraNorth AmericaArctic and SubarcticYes8000600020hunter-gatherers
NA50NortonNorth AmericaArctic and SubarcticYes3000100025hunter-gatherers
NC54Initial Shield WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern WoodlandsYes300060010hunter-gatherers
ND50Proto-AthapaskansNorth AmericaArctic and SubarcticYes200015032hunter-gatherers
ND60Paleo-ArcticNorth AmericaArctic and SubarcticYes1100060008hunter-gatherers
NN45Eastern Early ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands10000800011hunter-gatherers
NN50Eastern Middle ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern WoodlandsYes8000600028hunter-gatherers
NN55Eastern Late ArchaicNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands6000300023primarily hunter-gatherers
NN60Eastern Early WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands3000210039primarily hunter-gatherers
NN64Eastern Middle WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands2100130033primarily hunter-gatherers
NN67Eastern Late WoodlandNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands130050011primarily hunter-gatherers
NP50AdenaNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands2600190011primarily hunter-gatherers
NP55HopewellNorth AmericaEastern WoodlandsYes2100170067horticulturalists
NP60MississippianNorth AmericaEastern Woodlands110050046horticulturalists
NR50CascadeNorth AmericaPlains and PlateauYes800050006hunter-gatherers
NS50Late Southern CaliforniaNorth AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaYes300015020hunter-gatherers
NT50Early Desert ArchaicNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basin10000800031hunter-gatherers
NT55Middle–Late Desert ArchaicNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basin800015055hunter-gatherers
NT76HohokamNorth AmericaSouthwest and BasinYes2000500157intensive agriculturalists
NT85MogollonNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basin200060041hunter-gatherers to food producers
NT93BasketmakerNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basin3000130013primarily hunter-gatherers
NT95Early AnasaziNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basin130070093horticulturalists
NT97Late AnasaziNorth AmericaSouthwest and Basin70045015intensive agriculturalists
NU75HuatabampoMiddle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoYes18005003primarily hunter-gatherers
NU76West Mexico PostclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoYes110048015intensive agriculturalists
NU92Central Mexico ClassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexico2150135011intensive agriculturalists
NU93Central Mexico PostclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral Mexico130047950intensive agriculturalists
NU95OlmecMiddle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoYes3400210041other subsistence combinations
NY30Early Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbean9600700045hunter-gatherers
NY40Highland Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbean7000400014hunter-gatherers
NY41Highland Mesoamerican Early PreclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbean4000260012horticulturalists
NY42Highland Mesoamerican Late PreclassicMiddle America and the CaribbeanGeneral Middle America and the Caribbean2600160027horticulturalists
NY50Lowland Mesoamerican ArchaicMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Area700038008primarily hunter-gatherers
NY52Preclassic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Area3800185063horticulturalists
NY53Classic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaYes2100110030intensive agriculturalists
NY54Postclassic MayaMiddle America and the CaribbeanMaya Area110040043horticulturalists
OJ50New Guinea NeolithicOceaniaMelanesiaYes100001009horticulturalists
OU80TonganOceaniaPolynesiaYes20002007horticulturalists
OV50HawaiianOceaniaPolynesiaYes8002006horticulture to intensive agriculture
RA55Eastern European MesolithicEuropeEastern EuropeYes1100065006hunter-gatherers
RL60Early NomadAsiaCentral AsiaYes2800230036pastoralists
RY64Tarya NeolithicAsiaNorth AsiaYes400025004hunter-gatherers
S050Andean Regional DevelopmentSouth AmericaCentral AndesYes2200130012agro-pastoralists
S051Late CaribbeanMiddle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanYes100050012intensive agriculturalists
S060Early Northwest South American LittoralSouth AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaYes9000550011primarily hunter-gatherers
SD50ManteñoSouth AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaYes15005005horticulturalists
SE40Coastal Andean ArchaicSouth AmericaCentral Andes7000380012hunter-gatherers to food producers
SE41Coastal Andean Early FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andes3800300022horticulture to intensive agriculture
SE43Coastal Andean Late FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andes3000220020intensive agriculturalists
SE47Highland Andean ArchaicSouth AmericaCentral Andes7000350014hunter-gatherers to food producers
SE48Highland Andean FormativeSouth AmericaCentral Andes350022008agro-pastoralists
SE49ChavínSouth AmericaCentral Andes2800220013agro-pastoralists
SE51NazcaSouth AmericaCentral Andes2200120027intensive agriculturalists
SE55MocheSouth AmericaCentral Andes1950120029other subsistence combinations
SE65HuariSouth AmericaCentral Andes120090024agro-pastoralists
SE70Andean Regional StatesSouth AmericaCentral Andes90053017intensive agriculturalists
SE75ChimuSouth AmericaCentral AndesYes110048041intensive agriculturalists
SE80InkaSouth AmericaCentral Andes80046824intensive agriculturalists
SF45TiahuanacoSouth AmericaCentral Andes160090020agro-pastoralists
SF50Aymara KingdomsSouth AmericaCentral AndesYes90053011agro-pastoralists
W130Early Paleo-IndianNew WorldNew World140001020085hunter-gatherers
W130Early Paleo-IndianNew WorldNew World1hunter-gatherers
Totals:2548

 

 

Subsistence Classification

Hunter-gatherers — also called foragers; depend almost entirely (75% or more) on hunting, gathering, and fishing for subsistence

Hunter-gatherers to food producers — during the tradition the people began as hunter-gatherers and became dependent on food production (55% or more) by the end of the tradition. Food production includes combinations of hunting, gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Primarily hunter-gatherers — depend mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing (55% percent or more)

Horticulturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on simple agriculture (extensive or horticulture). Horticulture frequently requires a long fallow period. This category includes any type of agriculture that is not primarily (55% or more) intensive.

Agro-pastoralists — not any of the above. Pastoralism and horticulture/intensive agriculture combined contribute at least 75% or more to the economy.

Pastoralists — depend mostly (55% or more) on herding or pastoralism

Horticulture to intensive agriculture — at the beginning of the tradition, people depended mostly (55% or more) on horticulture and by the end of the tradition they depended mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture.

Intensive agriculturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture means a variety of techniques are used so that fields can be permanently cultivated. These techniques can include irrigation, terracing, crop rotation, plows, and/or some sort of agriculture.

Other subsistence combinations — includes other combinations of hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Not assigned — not enough information

 

 

Latest updated: May 20, 2020