SCCS Cases in eHRAF

The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS) consists of 186 anthropologically described societies chosen by the sample’s creators, Murdock and White (1969). The sample tried to minimize cultural relatedness, so only one society was chosen from a given culture area. Each society is pinpointed in time and space. Researchers coding variables for this sample are expected to adhere to the specified time and place focus.

To facilitate research for those wanting to code their own variables using eHRAF World Cultures for the SCCS sample, the HRAF staff have flagged those documents that, in HRAF’s judgment, provide an appropriate match to the time and place foci of the SCCS. Note that in almost all cases, eHRAF World Cultures contains many more documents than those flagged. This is because the HRAF collections try to cover multiple times and places to facilitate understanding of change of over and of regional variation.

We have indicated matches in multiple ways. First, we have provided information in the table below. Clicking on the ethnographer name and date will bring up the publication information page for the document (authentication required). Second, in the eHRAF World Cultures database itself, you can, after performing a search, narrow your results to the societies in eHRAF that have some matching documents. When you open the first results page, the documents that match are footnoted with “S1,” “S2,” and “S3.” As explained in the footnotes, an “S1” is considered a direct match. An “S2” is considered a partial match, usually because the document covers multiple time periods or multiple cultures. An “S3” footnote is occasionally given when the time or place is somewhat ambiguous and we urge some caution in using the source.

Cultural Concordance

All cultures change over time and except for the smallest of societies, most have regional variability. Different cross-cultural samples sometimes have different time and place foci for the same culture. This presents a problem if cross-cultural researchers using eHRAF want to use some variables coded by others when testing their hypotheses. The most common way of matching across cultural samples is to look for common names.

However, matching culture names is problematic for two reasons. First, the names are not always the same in two different samples. Second, even if the same name is found, the data from the two samples may not match because the information is from a different time and/or a different place. Using information for different time and place foci is likely to increase random error, which will almost always reduce correlations.

To solve these problems for researchers, the following table provides “matches” between eHRAF and SCCS as assessed by HRAF. A “match” between two samples means that they share the same time and place focus for the same culture. Note that in contrast to other cross-cultural samples, eHRAF usually contains more than one time and place focus to give researchers the opportunity to study change over time as well as cultural variation within the society. Adapted from Ember 2007.

HRAF plans to add all the SCCS cases in future installments.  When we do so, this table will be updated.

Table: SCCS matches in eHRAF

SCCS IDSCCS DateSCCS Sample Culture NameOWC Culture NameOWC CodeeHRAF Documents
1+1860Nama or NamaquaKhoiFX13Hoernlé, 1918
Hoernlé, 1923
Hoernlé, 1925
Schultze, 1907
2+1950KungSanFX10Marshall,
1957

Marshall,
1957

Marshall,
1958

Marshall,
1959

Marshall,
1961

Marshall,
1962

Marshall,
1965

Marshall,
1976

Thomas, 1959
3+1895Thonga or BathongaTsongaFT06Junod, 1927
Junod, 1927
4+1900LoziLoziFQ09Gluckman,
1941

Gluckman, 1950 (1958
reprinting)

Gluckman,
1959

Gluckman, 1967
5+1890Mbundu or OvimbunduOvimbunduFP13Childs, 1949
6+1920SukuSukuFO46Kopytoff,
1961

Kopytoff,
1964

Kopytoff,
1965

Kopytoff,
1971

Kopytoff,
1977

Kopytoff,
1980

Kopytoff,
1981

Kopytoff,
1990

Kopytoff, 1991
7+1897Bemba or AwembaBembaFQ05Brelsford,
1944]

Labrecque,
1931

Richards,
1935

Richards,
1937

Richards,
1939

Richards,
1940

Richards, 1956
8+1934NyakyusaNyakyusa and NgondeFN17Wilson, 1936
Wilson, 1938
Wilson, 1939
Wilson, 1951
Wilson, 1957
Wilson, 1959
9+1930HadzaHadzaFN11Bleek, 1931
Woodburn,
1968

Woodburn, 1968
11+1920Kikuyu or AikikuyuGikuyuFL10Kenyatta,
1953

Lambert, 1956
Leakey, 1952
12+1875Ganda or BagandaGandaFK07Roscoe, 1911
13+1950Mbuti or BambutiMbutiFO04Turnbull,
1962

Turnbull,
1965

Turnbull, 1965
14+1930Nkundo MongoMongoFO32Hulstaert, 1938
16+1920Tiv or MunshiTivFF57Abraham, 1933
Akiga, 1939
Bohannan,
1952

Bohannan,
1953

Bohannan,
1953

Bohannan,
1954

Bohannan,
1955

Bohannan,
1957

Bohannan,
1968

Bohannan,
1968

Bohannan,
1969

Downes, 1933
Price-Williams,
1962
17+1935Ibo or IgboIgboFF26Green, [1964]
Uchendu, [1965]
18+1890Fon or DahomeansFonFA18Bay, 1995
Blier, 1995
Herskovits,
1933

Herskovits,
1967

Herskovits,
1967

Law, 1997
19+1895AshantiAkanFE12Fortes, 1949
Fortes, 1950
Rattray,
1923

Rattray, 1927
Rattray, 1929
20+1945MendeMendeFC07Little, 1951
21+1950WolofWolofMS30Gamble, 1957
22+1902Bambara or BamanaBambaraFA08Henry, 1910
Monteil, 1924
23+1934TallensiTallensiFE11Fortes, 1936
Fortes, 1936
Fortes, 1937
Fortes, 1938
Fortes, 1945
Fortes, 1949
Fortes, 1955
24+1940SonghaiSonghaiMS20Rouch, 1954
Rouch, 1960
26+1900HausaHausaMS12Smith, 1955
Smith, 1957
Smith, 1960
Smith, 1965
28+1905Azande or Niam-NiamAzandeFO07Baxter, 1953
Evans-Pritchard,
1932

Evans-Pritchard,
1956

Evans-Pritchard,
1957

Evans-Pritchard,
1957

Evans-Pritchard,
1965

Evans-Pritchard,
1971
31+1910ShillukShillukFJ23Oyler, 1918
Oyler, 1919
Oyler, 1919
Oyler, 1920
Oyler, 1920
Oyler, 1926
Seligman, 1932
32+1939MaoMaoMP19Cerulli, 1956
Grottanelli,
1940
33+1905KaffaKaffaMP14Huntingford,
1955
34+1900MasaiMaasaiFL12Hollis, 1905
Hollis, 1910
Leakey, 1930
Merker, 1910
35+1935KonsoKonsoMP17Hallpike,
1968

Hallpike,
1970

Hallpike,
1970

Hallpike, 2008
36+1900SomaliSomaliMO04Drake-Brockman,
1912

Kirk, 1905
Lewis, 1955
Lewis, 1961
37+1953AmharaAmharaMP05Messing, 1985
40+1950TedaTedaMS22Chapelle,
1957

Kronenberg,
1958

Le Coeur, 1950
41+1900TuaregTuaregMS25Benhazera, 1908
42+1926RiffiansBerbers of MoroccoMX03Coon, 1931
Pennell, 1987
43+1950EgyptiansFellahinMR13'Ammār, 1954
45-1750BabyloniansBabyloniansMH07Bottéro,
1952

Charpin, 2010
Delaporte,
1925

Gadd, 1965
Leick, 2003
Saggs, 1965
Saggs,
1965

Saggs, 1988
Yoffee, 2014
46+1913Rwala BedouinRwala BedouinMD04Raswan, 1947
47+1950TurksTurksMB01Helburn, 1955
Makal, 1954
Pierce, 1964
Stirling,
1957

Stirling,
1963

Stirling, 1965
48+1910Gheg AlbaniansAlbaniansEG01Durham, 1910
Durham, 1928
Hasluck, 1954
Shryock, 1988
49+110RomansImperial RomansEI09Carcopino,
1940

Loane, 1938
Pellisson,
1897

Rivenburg, 1939
50+1934BasquesBasquesEX08Caro Baroja, 1958
51+1932IrishRural IrishER06Arensberg,
1937

Arensberg, 1940
52+1950LappsSaamiEP04Pehrson, 1952
Pehrson, 1957
53+1894Yurak SamoyedNenetsRU41Engelhardt,
1899

Islavin, 1847
55+1880AbkhazAbkhaziansRI03Janašvili, 1894
57+1951KurdKurdsMA11Leach, 1940
Masters, 1953
58+1958BasseriBasseriMA10Barth, 1961
Barth, 1969
60+1938GondGondAW32Grigson, 1949
61+1900TodaTodaAW60Rivers, 1906
62+1940SantalSantalAW42Biswas, 1956
Culshaw, 1949
Mukherjea, 1962
63+1945Uttar PradeshUttar PradeshAW19Opler, 1952
Opler, 1954
64+1934BurushoBurushoAV07Lorimer,
[1939]

Lorimer, 1935
Lorimer, 1938
65+1885KazakKazakhRQ02Grodekov,
1889

Hudson, 1938
66+1920Khalka MongolsMongoliaAH01Vreeland, 1973
67+1910Lolo or NosuYiAE04Lin, 1947
Tseng, 1945
68+1937Lepcha or RongLepchaAK05Gorer, 1938
Morris, 1938
69+1955GaroGaroAR05Burling, 1963
Burling, 1963
71+1965BurmeseBurmansAP04Brant, 1951
Scott, 1910
73+1930VietnameseVietnameseAM11Gourou, 1936
75+1292KhmerCambodiansAM04Zhou, 1987
76+1955Siamese/Central ThaiCentral ThaiAO07Goldsen, 1957
Hanks, 1962
Hanks, 1963
Hauck, 1956
Hauck, 1959
Ingersoll,
1966

Janlekha,
1956

Phillips,
1966

Sharp, 1978
Textor, 1973
77+1925SemangSemangAN07Schebesta,
1954

Schebesta, 1957
78+1870NicobareseNicobareseAZ07Man, 1889
Man, 1932
79+1860AndamaneseAndamansAZ02Man, 1932
Radcliffe-Brown,
1922
80+1860VeddaVeddaAX05Bailey, 1863
Seligman, 1911
81+1925TanalaTanalaFY08Linton, 1933
82+1958Negri SembilanMalaysAN05Gullick, 1958
Swift, 1965
83+1954JavaneseJavaneseOE05Dewey, 1962
Fagg, 1958 [1982
copy]

Geertz,
[1960]

Geertz,
[1961]

Geertz, 1968
Geertz, 1975
Jay, 1969
Koentjaraningrat,
1960
84+1958BalineseBalineseOF07Belo, 1936
Belo, 1936
Belo, 1949
Geertz, 1959
Geertz, 1967
85+1950Iban/Sea DayakIbanOC06Freeman, 1955
Freeman, 1955
Freeman, 1957
Freeman, 1958
Freeman,
1958
87+1910ToradjaEastern TorajaOG11Adriani, 1950
Adriani, 1951
Adriani, 1951
Adriani, 1951
89+1938Alorese or AbuiAloreseOF05Du Bois,
[c1944]

Du Bois, 1940
Du Bois, 1941
90+1929TiwiTiwiOI20Hart, 1939-31
Hart, 1960
91+1896Aranda or AruntaArandaOI08Spencer, 1927
92+1925OrokaivaOrokaivaOJ23Williams, 1928
Williams, 1930
93+1960KimamKimamOJ82Serpenti,
1965

Serpenti, 1984
94+1955KapaukuKapaukuOJ29Pospisil,
1958

Pospisil,
1958

Pospisil,
1958

Pospisil, 1963
95+1937KwomaKwomaOJ13Whiting, 1941
Whiting, 1970
96+1929ManusManusOM06Fortune, 1935
Mead, 1930
Mead, 1930
Mead, 1932
Mead, 1934
Mead, 1937
Mead, 1956
97+1930New IrelandLesuOM24Powdermaker,
1931

Powdermaker,
1931

Powdermaker,
1932

Powdermaker,
1933
98+1914TrobriandersTrobriandsOL06Firth, 1983
Leach, 1971
Leach, 1983
Lounsbury,
1965

Malinowski,
1916

Malinowski,
1920

Malinowski,
1920

Malinowski,
1921

Malinowski,
1922

Malinowski,
1926

Malinowski,
1926

Malinowski,
1927

Malinowski,
1929

Malinowski,
1934

Malinowski,
1935

Malinowski,
1935

Norick, c1976, 1992
copy

Robinson,
1972

Silas, 1924
Silas, 1926
Spiro, 1982
Uberoi, 1971
99+1939SiuaiSiwaiON19Oliver, 1949
Oliver, 1949
Oliver, 1949
Oliver, 1955
100+1930TikopiaTikopiaOT11Borrie, 1957
Firth, 1930
Firth, 1930
Firth, 1930
Firth,
1930-1931

Firth, 1931
Firth, 1934
Firth, 1936
Firth, 1936
Firth, 1937
Firth, 1939
Firth, 1939
Firth, 1940
Firth, 1947
Firth, 1949
Firth, 1950
Firth, 1951
Firth, 1954
Firth, 1955
Firth, 1956
Firth, 1960
Firth, 1961
Firth, 1967
Firth, 1970
103+1845AjieKanakOP04Leenhardt,
1930

Leenhardt, 1979
104+1820MaoriMaoriOZ04Best, 1924
Buck, 1952
Firth, 1959
Hawthorn, [1944]
105+1800MarquesansMarquesasOX06Handy, 1923
106+1829SamoansSamoansOU08Turner, 1884
107GilberteseKiribatiOR06Lambert, 1966
Lambert, 1971
Lambert, 1975
108+1900MarshalleseMarshalleseOR11Erdland, 1914
Krämer, 1938
Mason, 1947
Spoehr, 1949
109+1947TrukeseChuukOR19Gladwin, 1953
Goodenough,
1951

LeBar, {n.d.}
LeBar, 1964
Swartz, 1958
Swartz, 1962
110+1910YapeseYapeseOR22Born, 1903
Born, 1903
Furness, 1910
Müller,
1917

Salesius,
1906

Schneider,
1953

Senfft, 1901
Senfft, 1903
Senfft, 1907
Volkens, 1901
Walleser, 1913
111+1873PalauansBelauOR15Kubary, 2009
112+1910IfugaoIfugaoOA19Barton, 1919
Barton, 1922
Barton, 1930
Barton, 1935
Barton, 1946
Barton, 1955
Beyer, 1911
115+1915ManchuManchuAG04Shirokogorov,
1924
116+1947KoreansKoreaAA01Hewes, [n.d.]
Osgood, 1951
117+1950JapaneseOkayamaAB43Beardsley, 1972
De Vos, 1961
De Vos, 1973
118+1880AinuAinuAB06Batchelor,
1927

Hitchcock,
1891

Sugiura, 1962
Watanabe, 1964
119+1890GilyakNivkhRX02Shternberg, 1933
121+1900ChukcheeChukcheeRY02Bogoraz-Tan, 1904 [Part
1] ; 1907 [Part 2] ; 1909 [Part 3]

Bogoraz-Tan,
1910
122+1885IngalikIngalikNA08Osgood, 1958
Osgood, 1959
Osgood, 1970
123+1824AleutAleutNA06Innokentii,
1840

Innokentii,
1840

Jochelson, 1933
124+1915Copper EskimoCopper InuitND08Cameron, 1923
Jenness, 1917
Jenness, 1921
Jenness, 1921
Jenness, 1922
Jenness, 1922
Jenness, 1923
Jenness, 1923
Jenness, 1924
Jenness, 1924
Jenness, 1946
Jenness, 1959
Merwin, 1915
Rasmussen,
1932

Ritchie, 1923
Roberts, 1925
Stefánsson,
1913

Stefánsson,
1914

Sullivan, 1922
125+1910MontagnaisInnuNH06Lips, 1947
Lips, 1947
126+1650MicmacMi'kmaqNJ05Denys, 1908
Le Clercq, 1910
127+1930Northern SaulteauxOjibwaNG06Hallowell,
1942

Hallowell,
1955

Hallowell,
1976

Hallowell,
1976

Hallowell,
1976

Hallowell,
1976

Hallowell,
1976

Hallowell, 1991
129+1900KaskaKaskaND12Honigmann,
1954

Teit, 1956
131+1875HaidaHaidaNE09Brink, 1974
Murdock, 1934
Murdock, 1934
Murdock, 1970
Swanton, 1905
132+1880BellacoolaNuxalkNE06Boas, 1892
Boas, 1900
McIlwraith,
1948

McIlwraith, 1948
134+1850YurokYurokNS31Heizer, 1952
Waterman, 1934
135+1850PomoPomoNS18Gifford, 1926
Kroeber, 1953
Loeb, 1926
136+1850YokutsYokutsNS29Beals, 1958
Gayton, 1948
137+1870PaiuteNorthern PaiuteNR13Whiting, 1950
138+1860KlamathKlamathNR10Gatschet,
1890

Pearsall,
1950

Spier, 1930
Stern, 1956
Stern, 1962
Stern, 1965
Weaver, 1983
139+1890KutenaiKutenaiNF08Chamberlain,
1893

Turney-High,
1941
140+1880Gros VentreGros VentreNQ13Cooper, 1957
Flannery,
1953

Kroeber, 1908
142+1867PawneePawneeNQ18Weltfish, 1965
143+1860OmahaOmahaNQ21Dorsey, 1884
Dorsey, 1896
Fletcher, 1911
Fortune, 1932
145+1800CreekCreekNN11Swanton, 1928
Swanton, 1928
147+1870ComancheComancheNO06Hoebel, 1940
Lee, 1957
Wallace, 1952
148+1870Chiricahua ApacheEastern ApacheNT08Castetter,
1936

Opler, 1941
149+1880ZuniZuniNT23Cushing, 1896
Cushing, 1920
Stevenson,
1904

Stevenson, 1909
150+1918HavasupaiHavasupaiNT14Smithson,
1959

Spier, 1928
151+1910PapagoO'odhamNU79Chona, 1936
Underhill,
1939

Underhill, 1946
152+1890HuicholHuicholNU19Lumholtz,
1898

Lumholtz,
1973

Zingg, 1938
153+1520AztecAztecsNU07Barlow, 1949
Carrasco,
1971

Caso, 1971
Dibble, 1971
Durán, 1971 [second
printing 1975]

Gibson, 1971
León-Portilla,
1962

Monzon, 1949
Motolinía,
1951

Sahagún, 1950
Sahagún, 1951
Sahagún, 1952
Sahagún, 1953
Sahagún, 1954
Sahagún, 1957
Sahagún, 1959
Sahagún, 1961 [1974
reprint]

Sahagún, 1963 [1975
reprint]

Sahagún, 1969
Soustelle, 1961
156+1921MiskitoMiskitoSA15Conzemius, 1932
157+1917BribriTalamancansSA19Gabb, 1876
Skinner, 1920
158+1927Cuna (Tule)KunaSB05Densmore,
1926

Holmer,
[n.d.]

Holmer, 1951
Nordenskiöld,
1928

Nordenskiöld,
1929

Nordenskiöld,
1930

Nordenskiöld,
1930

Nordenskiöld,
1931

Nordenskiöld,
1938

Stout, 1946
Stout, 1947
Wassén, 1949
159+1947GoajiroGoajiroSC13Bolinder,
1957

Gutiérrez de Pineda, 1948
[1950]

Pineda Giraldo, 1947
[1950]

Santa Cruz, 1941
160+1935HaitiansHaitiansSV03Herskovits, 1937
161+1650CallinagoIsland CaribST13Bouton, 1640
Breton, 1665
Breton, 1929
Du Tertre,
1667

Rouse, 1948
162+1935WarrauWaraoSS18Turrado Moreno,
1945
163+1965YanomamoYanoamaSQ18Chagnon, 1967
Chagnon, 1968
Layrisse, 1962
164+1932Barama CaribBarama River CaribSR09Gillin, 1936
165+1928SaramaccaSaramakaSR15Herskovits, 1934
166+1850MundurucuMundurucuSQ13Murphy, 1958
Murphy, 1959
Murphy, 1959
Murphy, 1960
Tocantins, 1877
167+1939CubeoTukanoSQ19Goldman, 1963
168+1908CayapaChachiSD06Barrett, 1925
169+1920JivaroJivaroSD09Karsten, 1935
Rivet, 1907
Rivet, 1908
171+1530IncaInkaSE13Cieza de León,
1864

Cieza de León,
1883

Cobo, 1893
Guamán Poma de Ayala,
1936

Molina, 1873
Polo de Ondegardo,
1873

Polo de Ondegardo,
1916

Rowe, 1946
Santa Cruz Pachacuti
Yamqui Salcamayhua, 1873

Vega, [1963]
172+1940AymaraAymaraSF05Tschopik, 1951
173+1942SirionoSirionóSF21Holmberg,
[1946]

Holmberg, 1950
174+1940NambicuaraNambicuaraSP17Lévi-Strauss,
1943

Lévi-Strauss,
1945

Lévi-Strauss,
1948

Lévi-Strauss,
1948
175+1938TrumaiTrumaiSP23Murphy, [1955]
176+1915TimbiraCanelaSO08Nimuendaju, 1946
177+1550TupinambaTupinambaSO09Léry, 1880
Léry, 1906
Soares de Souza,
1851

Staden, 1928
Thevet, 1878
180+1932AweikomaXoklengSM03Henry, 1941
181+1890CayuaGuaraníSM04Hanke, 1956
183+1750AbiponAbipónSI04Dobrizhoffer,
1822
184+1950MapucheMapucheSG04Faron, 1961
Faron, 1964
Hilger, 1957
Titiev, 1951
185+1870Tehuelche or PatagonTehuelcheSH05Musters, 1872
Musters, 1873
186+1865YahganYahganSH06Gusinde, 1937
Lothrop, 1928

 

 

References

Ember, Carol R. 2007. “Using the HRAF Collection of Ethnography in Conjunction With the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and the Ethnographic Atlas”. Cross-Cultural Research 41:  396-427.

Murdock, George Peter and Douglas R. White. 1969. “Standard Cross-Cultural Sample.” Ethnology. 9:329-369.