Simple Random Sample (SRS) (eHRAF Archaeology)

The Simple Random Sample (SRS) below consists of traditions that are randomly selected from the Outline of Archaeological Traditions (OAT) compiled by Peter N. Peregrine with the help of a Board of Advisors. The OAT attempted to catalogue all known prehistoric archaeological traditions.

AsiaEast AsiaDawenkouAF50horticulturalists70005000
AsiaSouth AsiaGanges NeolithicAQ50other subsistence combinations40002500
EuropeGeneral EuropeBell BeakerE050intensive agriculturalists45003800
Middle EastMiddle EastIranian Bronze AgeMA50agro-pastoralists50003500
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticNortonNA50hunter-gatherers30001000
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticProto-AthapaskansND50hunter-gatherers2000150
OceaniaPolynesiaHawaiianOV50horticulture to intensive agriculture800200
South AmericaCentral AndesAndean Regional DevelopmentS050agro-pastoralists22001300
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaManteñoSD50horticulturalists1500500
South AmericaCentral AndesAymara KingdomsSF50agro-pastoralists900530
EuropeGeneral EuropeImpressed WareE051primarily hunter-gatherers68006000
AfricaNorthern AfricaLate Pleistocene–Early Holocene MaghrebM050hunter-gatherers200007500
AsiaCentral AsiaScythian-SarmatianMA51pastoralists40001700
AfricaNorthern AfricaKhartoum NeolithicMS50other subsistence combinations57003550
North AmericaGeneral North AmericaEastern Arctic Small ToolN050hunter-gatherers40002700
North AmericaNorthwest Coast and CaliforniaLate Southern CaliforniaNS50hunter-gatherers3000150
Middle America and the CaribbeanNorthern MexicoHuatabampoNU75primarily hunter-gatherers1800500
Middle America and the CaribbeanMaya AreaClassic MayaNY53intensive agriculturalists21001100
OceaniaMelanesiaNew Guinea NeolithicOJ50horticulturalists10000100
Middle America and the CaribbeanCaribbeanLate CaribbeanS051intensive agriculturalists1000500
AsiaCentral AsiaEastern Central Asia Neolithic and Bronze AgeAJ50agro-pastoralists60001500
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsEastern Middle ArchaicNN50hunter-gatherers80006000
North AmericaPlains and PlateauCascadeNR50hunter-gatherers80005000
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoWest Mexico PostclassicNU76intensive agriculturalists1100480
South AmericaNorthwestern South AmericaEarly Northwest South American LittoralS060primarily hunter-gatherers90005500
AsiaSouth AsiaCentral Indian NeolithicAQ63other subsistence combinations50003100
EuropeSoutheastern EuropeSoutheastern Europe Late ChalcolithicE075agro-pastoralists55004500
EuropeScandinaviaScandinavian Iron AgeE087other subsistence combinations25001500
AfricaWestern AfricaWest African Iron AgeFA75other subsistence combinations25001200
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticLate TundraNA45hunter-gatherers80006000
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsInitial Shield WoodlandNC54hunter-gatherers3000600
AsiaCentral AsiaEarly NomadRL60pastoralists28002300
Middle EastMiddle EastEarly Dynastic MesopotamiaMH64agro-pastoralists49004334
AsiaEast AsiaYayoiAB80intensive agriculturalists25001500
AsiaSouth AsiaIndus NeolithicAQ40hunter-gatherers to food producers70005000
AfricaSouthern AfricaWiltonFX50hunter-gatherers100002000
AfricaNorthern AfricaMiddle Paleolithic EgyptMR45hunter-gatherers23000045000
North AmericaEastern WoodlandsHopewellNP55horticulturalists21001700
AsiaEast AsiaSoutheast China Early NeolithicAF70primarily hunter-gatherers90005500
Middle EastMiddle EastHalafianM086agro-pastoralists75007000
Middle America and the CaribbeanCentral MexicoOlmecNU95other subsistence combinations34002100
Middle EastMiddle EastAkkadianMH66agro-pastoralists43344112
North AmericaArctic and SubarcticPaleo-ArcticND60hunter-gatherers110006000
North AmericaSouthwest and BasinHohokamNT76intensive agriculturalists2000500
South AmericaCentral AndesChimuSE75intensive agriculturalists1100480

 Additional Formats

Topics and Cultures in eHRAF: This printable PDF document is an overview of all the topics on cultural and social life, and all cultures, past and present, currently covered in HRAF’s cross-cultural online databases. It serves as handy reference for librarians, educators, and researchers.

Excel format: A comprehensive list of the 46 SRS tradition names currently included in the eHRAF Archaeology database. The excel format also includes sequence and installment numbers, OWC codes, region coverage (including subregions), date coverage (beginning and ending dates for the cultural materials), and subsistence type.  This list in excel format is versatile because you can sort the spreadsheet to your needs and add or delete any columns you like. The sequence numbers for each culture name make the excel table useful for generating a subset of the simple random sample from eHRAF.  Visit the Cross-Cultural Research section to learn more about random sampling.

Access to the archaeological traditions in the eHRAF Archaeology database requires membership (or temporary password). Contact for access to eHRAF Archaeology.

Subsistence Classification

Hunter-gatherers — also called foragers; depend almost entirely (75% or more) on hunting, gathering, and fishing for subsistence

Hunter-gatherers to food producers — during the tradition the people began as hunter-gatherers and became dependent on food production (55% or more) by the end of the tradition. Food production includes combinations of hunting, gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Primarily hunter-gatherers — depend mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing (55% percent or more)

Horticulturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on simple agriculture (extensive or horticulture). Horticulture frequently requires a long fallow period. This category includes any type of agriculture that is not primarily (55% or more) intensive.

Agro-pastoralists — not any of the above. Pastoralism and horticulture/intensive agriculture combined contribute at least 75% or more to the economy.

Pastoralists — depend mostly (55% or more) on herding or pastoralism

Horticulture to intensive agriculture — at the beginning of the tradition, people depended mostly (55% or more) on horticulture and by the end of the tradition they depended mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture.

Intensive agriculturalists — depend mostly (55% or more) on intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture means a variety of techniques are used so that fields can be permanently cultivated. These techniques can include irrigation, terracing, crop rotation, plows, and/or some sort of agriculture.

Other subsistence combinations — includes other combinations of hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture

Not assigned — not enough information

Where can Traditions, Regions, Subsistence and Sample types be found in eHRAF?

Overviews of the archaeological traditions can be found in the Browse Tradition section of eHRAF Archaeology, or searched in combination with subjects and keywords in Advanced Search.

In eHRAF Archaeology, a search query can be refined by sample and subsistence type.  This is done after a search in the culture results page.

Subsistence and sample types in eHRAF's results page

Subsistence and sample types in eHRAF’s results page

 Related Link:

Refining Culture Search Results in eHRAF by Subsistence Types