Carol R. Ember is President of the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University. Previously she served as Executive Director from 1996 to 2009. She is currently the editor of the journal Cross-Cultural Research and she is the lead investigator on a 4.5-year NSF-supported interdisciplinary research project to study how natural hazards may have transformed culture. She has served as President of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research, the President of the Society for Anthropological Sciences, and co-directed the Summer Institutes for Comparative Anthropological Research, which were supported by the National Science Foundation. Most of her research career has been devoted to cross-cultural research on variation in marriage, family, kin groups, gender roles, predictors of war and other forms of violence. Most recently she is engaged in interdisciplinary research on how natural hazards and other resource stressors may transform culture. She is interested in research that integrates the fields of anthropology as well as anthropology with other disciplines. She is the first author (with Melvin Ember) of Cultural Anthropology, now in its 15th edition and Anthropology (with Melvin Ember and Peter N. Peregrine), now in its 15th edition. She and Melvin Ember also wrote a primer on how to do cross-cultural research (Cross-Cultural Research Methods), now in its 2nd edition.